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In September 2018, IBM announced a brand modern product, IBM Db2 AI for z/OS. This synthetic intelligence engine screens statistics entry patterns from executing SQL statements, makes expend of laptop discovering algorithms to select top-quality patterns and passes this recommendation to the Db2 query optimizer for expend by subsequent statements.laptop discovering on the IBM z Platform
In may additionally of 2018, IBM introduced edition 1.2 of its computing device getting to know for z/OS (MLz) product. this is a hybrid zServer and cloud utility suite that ingests performance records, analyzes and builds models that symbolize the health fame of a lot of indicators, screens them over time and gives true-time scoring capabilities.
a number of features of this product offering are aimed at assisting a community of model developers and executives. for example:
This desktop getting to know suite turned into at the start aimed toward zServer-based mostly analytics applications. probably the most first obvious choices become zSystem efficiency monitoring and tuning. device administration Facility (SMF) information that are automatically generated by means of the operating system give the raw facts for device useful resource consumption similar to central processor usage, I/O processing, reminiscence paging and the like. IBM MLz can bring together and store these facts over time, and construct and instruct fashions of system conduct, score those behaviors, establish patterns not conveniently foreseen with the aid of people, increase key performance indications (KPIs) and then feed the mannequin results returned into the system to impress system configuration alterations that can ameliorate performance.
The next step turned into to invoke this suite to investigate Db2 efficiency information. One solution, referred to as the IBM Db2 IT Operational Analytics (Db2 ITOA) solution template, applies the computing device researching know-how to Db2 operational statistics to gain an knowing of Db2 subsystem health. it may well dynamically construct baselines for key efficiency indicators, provide a dashboard of those KPIs and give operational personnel precise-time insight into Db2 operations.
whereas regular Db2 subsystem efficiency is an primary aspect in benchmark application fitness and efficiency, IBM estimates that the DBA aid workforce spends 25% or more of its time, " ... combating access direction issues which antecedent efficiency degradation and service believe an effect on.". (See Reference 1).AI comes to Db2
accept as honest with the plight of modern DBAs in a Db2 atmosphere. In coincident IT world they must assuage one or extra big statistics applications, cloud utility and database functions, utility installation and configuration, Db2 subsystem and utility performance tuning, database definition and administration, disaster healing planning, and more. query tuning has been in existence because the origins of the database, and DBAs are usually tasked with this as well.
The coronary heart of query direction analysis in Db2 is the Optimizer. It accepts SQL statements from purposes, verifies authority to access the records, reviews the areas of the objects to subsist accessed and develops an inventory of candidate information access paths. These entry paths can consist of indexes, table scans, quite a lot of table combine strategies and others. within the facts warehouse and big statistics environments there are usually additional decisions purchasable. One of these is the existence of abstract tables (every now and then known as materialized query tables) that involve pre-summarized or aggregated information, therefore allowing Db2 to wait away from re-aggregation processing. one other alternative is the starjoin access route, regular in the statistics warehouse, where the order of table joins is modified for efficiency factors.
The Optimizer then studies the candidate entry paths and chooses the access direction, "with the lowest can charge." cost during this context potential a weighted summation of useful resource usage including CPU, I/O, remembrance and other materials. finally, the Optimizer takes the lowest can suffuse entry route, outlets it in reminiscence (and, optionally, within the Db2 directory) and starts off entry path execution.
huge records and statistics warehouse operations now involve software suites that permit the company analyst to earn expend of a graphical interface to construct and manipulate a miniature statistics mannequin of the facts they necessity to analyze. The programs then generate SQL statements in response to the clients’ requests.
The issue for the DBA
to subsist able to Do first rate analytics to your discrete facts retailers you want a suited realizing of the statistics requirements, an realizing of the analytical functions and algorithms accessible and a high-performance facts infrastructure. sadly, the number and placement of facts sources is increasing (each in size and in geography), records sizes are starting to be, and purposes proceed to proliferate in number and complexity. How should IT managers assuage this environment, chiefly with probably the most experienced and develope cadaver of workers nearing retirement?
be mindful additionally that a vast allotment of cutting back the gross suffuse of ownership of those systems is to find Db2 applications to dash faster and greater effectively. This always interprets into the expend of fewer CPU cycles, doing fewer I/Os and transporting much less data throughout the community. considering the fact that it is regularly tangled to even establish which functions might benefit from performance tuning, one approach is to automate the detection and correction of tuning issues. here is the situation desktop getting to know and synthetic intelligence can subsist used to incredible effect.Db2 12 for z/OS and synthetic Intelligence
Db2 edition 12 on z/OS makes expend of the desktop studying facilities outlined above to accumulate and maintain SQL query text and access path particulars, as well as specific performance-related worn suggestions reminiscent of CPU time used, elapsed instances and result set sizes. This providing, described as Db2 AI for z/OS, analyzes and stores the facts in laptop discovering fashions, with the mannequin analysis outcomes then being scored and made obtainable to the Db2 Optimizer. The subsequent time a scored SQL commentary is encountered, the Optimizer can then expend the model scoring statistics as input to its access route alternative algorithm.
The effect should silent subsist a reduction in CPU consumption because the Optimizer uses model scoring enter to opt for superior access paths. This then lowers CPU charges and speeds software response times. a major competencies is that the expend of AI software doesn't require the DBA to believe statistics science abilities or profound insights into query tuning methodologies. The Optimizer now chooses the top-quality entry paths primarily based not most efficacious on SQL question syntax and facts distribution statistics however on modelled and scored worn performance.
This will too subsist exceptionally crucial if you shop information in dissimilar locations. for instance, many analytical queries towards big information require concurrent access to obvious records warehouse tables. These tables are commonly referred to as dimension tables, and that they comprise the records facets usually used to handle subsetting and aggregation. for example, in a retail environment accept as honest with a table known as StoreLocation that enumerates each store and its situation code. Queries towards maintain revenue statistics may wish to aggregate or summarize revenue with the aid of vicinity; hence, the StoreLocation desk could subsist used by course of some massive facts queries. during this environment it is typical to engage the dimension tables and copy them continuously to the vast records application. within the IBM world this location is the IBM Db2 Analytics Accelerator (IDAA).
Now feel about SQL queries from each operational purposes, data warehouse clients and massive statistics company analysts. From Db2's perspective, gross these queries are equal, and are forwarded to the Optimizer. however, in the case of operational queries and warehouse queries they may silent most likely subsist directed to entry the StoreLocation desk within the warehouse. nonetheless, the question from the enterprise analyst towards massive statistics tables may silent likely access the reproduction of the desk there. This outcomes in a proliferations of abilities access paths, and extra drudgery for the Optimizer. luckily, Db2 AI for z/OS can supply the Optimizer the suggestions it must earn smart entry direction selections.how it Works
The sequence of pursuits in Db2 AI for z/OS (See Reference 2) is frequently right here:
There are additionally numerous consumer interfaces that supply the administrator visibility to the repute of the amassed SQL remark performance records and mannequin scoring.abstract
IBM's laptop gaining lore of for zOS (MLz) providing is getting used to brilliant impact in Db2 version 12 to enrich the performance of analytical queries in addition to operational queries and their linked applications. This requires administration attention, as you ought to check that your company is ready to devour these ML and AI conclusions. How will you measure the expenses and merits of the usage of desktop gaining lore of? Which IT assist group of workers necessity to subsist tasked to reviewing the influence of model scoring, and perhaps approving (or overriding) the outcomes? How will you review and justify the assumptions that the software makes about access path selections?
In different words, how smartly did you know your records, its distribution, its integrity and your present and proposed access paths? this could assess the situation the DBAs expend their time in assisting analytics and operational utility performance.
# # #
John Campbell, IBM Db2 distinguished EngineerFrom "IBM Db2 AI for z/OS: boost IBM Db2 utility efficiency with machine discovering"https://www.worldofdb2.com/hobbies/ibm-db2-ai-for-z-os-boost-ibm-db2-utility-efficiency-with-ma
Db2 AI for z/OShttps://www.ibm.com/guide/knowledgecenter/en/SSGKMA_1.1.0/src/ai/ai_home.html
See gross articles through Lockwood Lyon
At an primary modern England-enviornment insurance provider, a database engineer who asked now not to subsist recognized listed here, describes the management of security for her mainframe databases as "a virtually-impossible, labor-intensive stint - if gross they had to expend believe been IBM's own protection administration utilities."
She reports that her enterprise has over 600 IBM DB2 databases operating in 13 LPARs across eight mainframes distributed across two, geographically separate facts facilities.
"About eight,000 conclude clients on the company believe managed access to the actually hundreds of volumes of DB2 records on systems which we're migrating to DB2 edition 5.1. we're additionally in the process of migrating from [IBM] MVS to the OS/390 operating gadget to achieve yr 2000 compliance," says the engineer.
"whereas IBM did an excellent job with DB2, its protection administration equipment are inadequate to sustain with the adjustments that gyrate up in their ambiance on an almost daily groundwork: alterations in person access, the protection of demur safety and the securing of access to modern transactions. Their database directors (DBAs) could subsist spending gross of their time just doing security drudgery if gross they had had been DB2's personal protection utilities. It will not subsist an option now not to believe a 2nd [security] administration equipment for DB2."
To raise the protection administration capabilities delivered with IBM DB2, the engineer reviews that her enterprise uses RC/secure from Platinum expertise Inc. (Oakbrook Terrace, IL). With RC/cozy, she says, "we will let their safety administration personnel Do the busywork of [granting and revoking access to DB2 database objects], while letting the DBAs focal point on the intelligence drudgery of database design. Platinum's product gives for cleaner safety operations and productivity improvements over indigenous DB2 safety applications."
In DB2's protection, the engineer concedes that her enterprise has not appeared intently at any adjustments in DB2 safety delivered with the modern edition of the IBM database. Platinum's RC/relaxed has develop into a fixture at the traffic over a length of years and he or she has cramped incentive to trade whatever thing that works.
DB2 safety: an occasion to boost
IBM, which has delivered DB2 considering its branding in 1994 to greater than eleven,000 corporations and more than 40 million conclusion clients global, has been actively evolving the product from an MVS-only mainframe database to a widespread information base, based on Hershel Harris, Director of Database know-how with IBM's utility solutions Division.
Harris in short recounts some watershed accomplishments within the progress of DB2. "In 1994, they released an AIX and OS/2 edition of the product. In 1995, they offered a parallel version for facts warehousing and a UNIX version for sun Microsystems and Hewlett-Packard. In 1997, they launched the accepted Database (UDB) edition, including demur extensions, assuage for OLAP and OLTP functions and additional aid for parallel databases that enabled statistics to subsist slice up across multiple nodes in a clustered environment. This yr, they announced OS/390 DB2 UDB. edition 6, which may silent subsist purchasable in 1999, extends the capability of UDB to maintain in intelligence objects. The household of products now runs throughout diverse operating environments, including NT, UNIX, OS/390, AIX and other flavors of UNIX. They are not any longer a best mainframe product, however we're proud of their mainframe heritage."
built across the relational database model, says Hershel, DB2 promises "developed-in security according to privileges." He explains that, for each person with a convincing identification or group membership, DB2 DBAs can expend the product's indigenous protection features to control what the person can Do with the database objects.
"This goes past access. For each demur and every person, selected privileges can too subsist set up, together with read, write, delete, update and run. The objects will too subsist tables, views or procedures, and the privileges may too subsist defined at a really granular stage."
Hershel says that commonplace SQL facts handle language statements comparable to concede and REVOKE may well subsist used easily to control demur access. He adds that IBM will earn available in version 6 of the OS/390 DB2 UDB product a collection of Administrative tools similar to people who already ship with disbursed platform models of the product, "we now believe in edition 5.2 [of their distributed systems product], a simple-to-use, NT-based Administration appliance that allows both graphical and web-primarily based administration of gross allotted DB2 servers. This appliance set is being added to [our OS/390 DB2 product] with its unencumber in 1999."
Hershel is awake about the provision and expend of third celebration products at the side of the IBM database, which he describes as "complimentary to the product."
"IBM encourages complimentary product structure through different agencies. in the area of DB2 protection administration, there are probably a pair of companies that deliver items to boost the capabilities delivered with DB2. These tools may additionally supply a graphical person interface to protection administration the expend of IBM's application programming interface. Some items emphasize greater question capabilities or greater reporting. Some are attempting to combine equipment stage security with DB2. One company showed me an illustration these days of an utility that enabled speech recognition know-how and its expend with DB2 database security administration. In accepted, we're very supportive of those efforts."
alternatives to enhance DB2 in a complimentary system believe been exploited by means of a big number of businesses, together with Platinum expertise, in accordance with Pete Peterson, vp for Database Administration items at Platinum.
Peterson says that RC/comfortable answers a necessity inside groups to simplify the model for managing authority, "With DB2 edition 5, IBM makes it viable for RACF or external protection items for expend in administering safety within DB2. It is not a very simple process and it's problematic to create utility and user domains the usage of IBM utilities. organizations can gain loads of [security administration efficiency] if they had a simple solution to circulate a hierarchy of privileges from one user to a different while not having to redo everything."
RC/comfortable, based on Peterson, is designed as a "management layer on properly of DB2 - however not a run-time layer." He explains that changes made to protection privileges could subsist utilized on an ad hoc basis or in batch mode and suggests that the latter formula is silent favored by using protection administrators. He adds that Platinum's RC/query product additionally enhances DB2's query amenities and might subsist employed in connection with RC/comfy to determine up-to-date objects within user and application domains.
Peterson anticipates a continuing claim for DB2 enhancement items despite IBM's pretense that version 6 will dispose of the want for obvious types of enhancement products. Says Peterson, while IBM is trying to circulation toward a objective of a common Database to permit administration across systems, "there are adjustments within the mainframe DB2 product that believe been reserve there to cater to the MVS individuals and to capitalize on the qualities of that platform so that you can proceed to bog down this goal."
computing device associates: Enhancement Equals alternative
Mark Combs concurs that IBM opened doorways to 3rd parties with version 5 of its DB2 implementation on MVS. Combs, who's Senior vp for analysis and structure with computing device acquaintances (CA) in Islandia, ny, sees the occasion created much less when it comes to enhancing DB2 than as an occasion to substitute RACF with both ACF2 or excellent furtive - each CA mainframe safety management items.
"agencies deserve to stream to actual, rules-primarily based security - it's, a condition in which traffic suggestions check access. these days, in many mainframe environments, about 75 percent of the rules are controlled with the aid of gadget management products akin to CA-ACF2, CA-good furtive or RACF from IBM. an additional 25 percent are basically conditional or enforced the usage of an poverty-stricken lot much less unbelievable SQL database safety capabilities in items enjoy DB2. What is needed is an built-in management infrastructure that permit centralized, suggestions-based security across the entire ambiance and that supply administrative equipment on the mainframe, as well as graphical person interface-based tools on the computer," says Combs.
i am attracted to doing certification in DB2 administration for OS/390. i would enjoy to master the discipline, not simply find the certification.smartly, the surest strategy to grasp any discipline is via doing it. So, with that in mind, earn positive you cozy a situation the situation you've got access to DB2 and wish to drudgery with it to fulfill your job. but, i am guessing that your goal is to find a job and that you wish to find licensed to achieve one. if this is so, then there are some steps you could take. firstly, accept as honest with obtaining right here books for eye at and reference: DB2 Developer's ebook, fifth edition with the aid of Craig S. Mullins Db2 For The Z/os edition eight Certification through Susan Lawson DB2 typical Database for OS/390 v7.1 software Certification e-book via Susan Lawson earn positive you additionally down load, and evaluation, the entire DB2 for z/OS manuals from the IBM net web site. moreover, regularly assessment the in-depth technical articles published via IBM at its developerWorks web site. other first rate web sites to bookmark and evaluate involve Search390.com, SearchDatabase.com, dbazine.com, DB2 for OS390, and DB2 times. regarding your ultimate question, i might philosophize that the most desirable solution to gain my DBA e-book is by course of amazon.com.
Editor's observe: Do you disagree with this professional's response? when you've got extra to share, publish it in one of their .VO7aaqqaAFk.0@/search390>discussion forums.
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At a major modern England-area insurance provider, a database engineer who asked not to subsist identified in this article, describes the management of security for her mainframe databases as "a nearly-impossible, labor-intensive stint - if gross they had to expend were IBM's own security administration utilities."
She reports that her company has over 600 IBM DB2 databases running in 13 LPARs across eight mainframes distributed across two, geographically separate data centers.
"About 8,000 conclude users at the company believe controlled access to the literally hundreds of volumes of DB2 data on systems which they are migrating to DB2 version 5.1. They are too in the process of migrating from [IBM] MVS to the OS/390 operating system to achieve Year 2000 compliance," says the engineer.
"While IBM did a much job with DB2, its security administration tools are inadequate to maintain up with the changes that occur in their environment on an almost daily basis: changes in user access, the maintenance of demur security and the securing of access to modern transactions. Their database administrators (DBAs) would subsist spending gross of their time just doing security drudgery if gross they had were DB2's own security utilities. It is just not an option not to believe a second [security] administration package for DB2."
To enhance the security administration capabilities delivered with IBM DB2, the engineer reports that her company uses RC/Secure from Platinum Technology Inc. (Oakbrook Terrace, IL). With RC/Secure, she says, "We can let their security administration personnel Do the busywork of [granting and revoking access to DB2 database objects], while letting the DBAs focus on the intelligence drudgery of database design. Platinum's product provides for cleaner security operations and productivity improvements over indigenous DB2 security applications."
In DB2's defense, the engineer concedes that her company has not looked closely at any changes in DB2 security delivered with the modern version of the IBM database. Platinum's RC/Secure has become a fixture at the company over a age of years and she has cramped incentive to change something that works.
DB2 Security: An occasion to Enhance
IBM, which has delivered DB2 since its branding in 1994 to more than 11,000 organizations and more than 40 million conclude users worldwide, has been actively evolving the product from an MVS-only mainframe database to a universal data base, according to Hershel Harris, Director of Database Technology with IBM's Software Solutions Division.
Harris briefly recounts some watershed accomplishments in the progress of DB2. "In 1994, they released an AIX and OS/2 version of the product. In 1995, they provided a parallel edition for data warehousing and a UNIX edition for Sun Microsystems and Hewlett-Packard. In 1997, they released the Universal Database (UDB) edition, adding demur extensions, back for OLAP and OLTP applications and additional back for parallel databases that enabled data to subsist split across multiple nodes in a clustered environment. This year, they announced OS/390 DB2 UDB. Version 6, which should subsist available in 1999, extends the capability of UDB to understand objects. The family of products now runs across multiple operating environments, including NT, UNIX, OS/390, AIX and other flavors of UNIX. They are no longer a only mainframe product, but they are proud of their mainframe heritage."
Built around the relational database model, says Hershel, DB2 delivers "built-in security based on privileges." He explains that, for every user with a convincing ID or group membership, DB2 DBAs can expend the product's indigenous security features to control what the user can Do with the database objects.
"This goes beyond access. For every demur and every user, specific privileges can subsist set up, including read, write, delete, update and run. The objects can subsist tables, views or procedures, and the privileges can subsist defined at a very granular level."
Hershel says that generic SQL data control language statements such as concede and REVOKE may subsist used readily to control demur access. He adds that IBM will earn available in Version 6 of the OS/390 DB2 UDB product a suite of Administrative Tools similar to those that already ship with distributed platform versions of the product, "We believe in Version 5.2 [of their distributed systems product], an easy-to-use, NT-based Administration appliance that allows both graphical and Web-based administration of gross distributed DB2 servers. This appliance set is being added to [our OS/390 DB2 product] with its release in 1999."
Hershel is awake of the availability and expend of third party products in conjunction with the IBM database, which he describes as "complimentary to the product."
"IBM encourages complimentary product progress by other companies. In the area of DB2 security administration, there are probably a number of companies that deliver products to enhance the capabilities delivered with DB2. These tools may provide a graphical user interface to security administration using IBM's application programming interface. Some products emphasize enhanced query capabilities or enhanced reporting. Some try to integrate system flush security with DB2. One company showed me a demonstration recently of an application that enabled speech recognition technology and its expend with DB2 database security administration. In general, they are very supportive of these efforts."
Opportunities to enhance DB2 in a complimentary manner believe been exploited by numerous companies, including Platinum Technology, according to Pete Peterson, Vice President for Database Administration Products at Platinum.
Peterson says that RC/Secure answers a necessity within companies to simplify the model for managing authority, "With DB2 version 5, IBM allows RACF or external security products to subsist used in administering security within DB2. It is not a very straightforward procedure and it is difficult to create application and user domains using IBM utilities. Companies can gain a lot of [security administration efficiency] if they had a simple course to pass a hierarchy of privileges from one user to another without having to redo everything."
RC/Secure, according to Peterson, is designed as a "management layer on top of DB2 - but not a run-time layer." He explains that changes made to security privileges may subsist applied on an ad hoc basis or in batch mode and suggests that the latter system continues to subsist preferred by security administrators. He adds that Platinum's RC/Query product too enhances DB2's query facilities and may subsist employed in connection with RC/Secure to verify updated objects within user and application domains.
Peterson anticipates a continuing claim for DB2 enhancement products despite IBM's pretense that Version 6 will eliminate the necessity for inescapable types of enhancement products. Says Peterson, while IBM is trying to go toward a goal of a Universal Database to enable administration across platforms, "there are differences in the mainframe DB2 product that were reserve there to cater to the MVS folks and to capitalize on the characteristics of that platform that will continue to impede this goal."
Computer Associates: Enhancement Equals Replacement
Mark Combs agrees that IBM opened doors to third parties with version 5 of its DB2 implementation on MVS. Combs, who is Senior Vice President for Research and progress with Computer Associates (CA) in Islandia, NY, sees the occasion created less in terms of enhancing DB2 than as an occasion to replace RACF with either ACF2 or Top furtive - both CA mainframe security management products.
"Companies necessity to go to real, rules-based security - that is, a situation in which traffic rules determine access. Today, in many mainframe environments, about 75 percent of the rules are controlled by system management products such as CA-ACF2, CA-Top furtive or RACF from IBM. Another 25 percent are actually established or enforced using much less robust SQL database security capabilities in products enjoy DB2. What is needed is an integrated management infrastructure that enable centralized, rules-based security across the entire environment and that provide administrative tools on the mainframe, as well as graphical user interface-based tools on the desktop," says Combs.
I'm interested in doing certification in DB2 administration for OS/390. I would enjoy to master the subject, not just find the certification.Well, the best course to master any subject is by doing it. So, with that in mind, you should secure a position where you believe access to DB2 and necessity to drudgery with it to fulfill your job. But, I'm guessing that your objective is to find a job and that you are looking to find certified to obtain one. If that is the case, then there are some steps you can take. First of all, reckon obtaining the following books for study and reference: DB2 Developer's Guide, 5th edition by Craig S. Mullins Db2 For The Z/os Version 8 Certification by Susan Lawson DB2 Universal Database for OS/390 v7.1 Application Certification steer by Susan Lawson You should too download, and review, gross of the DB2 for z/OS manuals from the IBM Web site. Additionally, regularly review the in-depth technical articles published by IBM at its developerWorks site. Other suited Web sites to bookmark and review involve Search390.com, SearchDatabase.com, dbazine.com, DB2 for OS390, and DB2 Times. Regarding your final question, I would philosophize that the best course to obtain my DBA engage is via amazon.com.
Editor's note: Do you disagree with this expert's response? If you believe more to share, post it in one of their .VO7aaqqaAFk.0@/search390>discussion forums.
Take a eye at the four primary statements of DML: Select, Update, Insert, and Delete. You will learn the function each of these can play in your efforts to master DB2. You will too eye at various aspects of SQL, a necessary language to understand though the comprehension flush will vary depending on the user's activity.This chapter is from the engage
In the previous chapter, they discussed the definitions of various database objects using the Data Definition Language (DDL). In this chapter, they start manipulating the database objects using the portion of SQL known as Data Manipulation Language (DML). They will subsist populating (inserting) data into the database and retrieving the data using many powerful methods. Depending on the sophistication of the database users, they can expend SQL to query the database. The majority of the SQL statements within a DB2 application involve DML statements. Therefore, application developers must understand the various methods of inserting, updating, and retrieving data from the database. They will start with simple retrieval statements and gradually interlard more tangled methods of data manipulation. The DB2 Certification database will subsist used for most of the examples. There are four main DML SQL statements they consider: SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE.
SQL is based on mathematical principles, specifically on set theory and relational algebra. The data is stored in the database as unordered sets of data records. SQL is a set-oriented language, and many of its language elements are directly related to relational algebraic terms, such as permutation, projection, restriction, and join.
A set of data is represented in a DB2 database as a table or a view and is stored in a DB2 table without esteem to order. To retrieve data in a particular order, an ORDER BY phrase must subsist added to a SELECT statement. Similarly, if the data is to subsist grouped, then a GROUP BY phrase must subsist added to the statement.
Now, let's review the DB2CERT database design defined in the previous chapter and manipulate data using various SQL statements. There are three main tables: CANDIDATE, TEST, and TEST_CENTER. Each table represents a set of records that correspond to a test candidate (person), a test, and a test heart (location).
There is an associative table, known as the TEST_TAKEN table, that is used to reflect the relationships among the three main tables. The TEST_TAKEN table is used to schedule the test candidates and too to maintain their test scores.
The longest SQL statement is 32,765 bytes.
Remember that to execute any operation, the user must believe the necessary privileges.Retrieving the Entire Table
The most basic of gross retrieval command involves the SELECT statement with no operators other than the appellation of the table. This SQL statement retrieves gross of the candidates who believe taken a DB2 Certification exam. The information requested is contained in the table TEST_TAKEN.SELECT * FROM db2cert.test_taken
SQL is a data access language that consists of language statements and clauses. There are many optional clauses that can subsist used to modify the output. The output of a SELECT statement is known as a result set or result table. The results from the SELECT statement are shown next. In this example, using an asterisk or star character (*) for column selection, the columns will subsist returned to the user in the order in which they are defined in the table.CID TCID NUMBER DATE_TAKEN START_TIME FINISH_TIME SCORE PASS_FAIL SEAT_NO --- ---- ------ ---------- ---------- ----------- ----- --------- ------- 111 TX01 500 01/01/2000 11:30:00 12:30:00 65 Y 1 111 TX01 501 02/02/2000 10:30:00 11:45:00 73 Y 1 111 TX01 502 03/03/2000 12:30:00 13:30:00 67 Y 1 222 TR01 500 01/01/2000 14:00:00 15:30:00 55 N 2 222 TR01 502 01/02/2000 09:00:00 10:15:00 53 N 2 222 TR01 502 02/18/2000 10:00:00 11:30:00 75 Y 2 333 TX01 500 03/01/2000 11:30:00 13:00:00 82 Y 2 333 TX01 501 12/29/2000 14:00:00 - - - 1 333 TX01 502 03/02/2000 14:00:00 14:30:00 92 Y 1 9 record(s) selected.
In SQL, the * is used to testify that gross columns of a table are being referenced. In this example, the SQL statement refers to gross of the columns defined for the DB2CERT.TEST_TAKEN table. If the table is altered and a modern column is added to the table definition, the result set would accommodate the modern column.
Adding a modern column to an existing table will result in default values being populated for the existing rows.
Since the output of the SQL statement using * character varies according to the table definition, it is recommended that you specify gross of the column names you want to perceive in the SELECT statement. They could believe obtained the same result as the statement using SELECT * with the following SQL statement.SELECT cid, tcid, number,date_taken,start_time, finish_time,score,seat_no FROM db2cert.test_taken;
The * character is used to advert to gross of the columns defined for a table. The order of the columns in the result table is the same order as specified in the CREATE TABLE or CREATE VIEW statement.
What is returned to the user is known as the result set. If the result set is big it is advisable to subsist positive to filter the data using a WHERE predicate.
The FROM clause is required for the DML SQL statement, since it describes the location (table or view) of the data. Their specimen references a separate table called DB2CERT.TEST_TAKEN. The SELECT and FROM clauses are required in gross data retrieval statements. The list of columns following the SELECT keyword is referred to as the select list.Projecting Columns from a Table
Projection is a relational operation that allows you to retrieve a subset of the defined columns from a table. The next specimen restricts the output from the SELECT command so that only the candidate ID, test center, and test number attributes from the TEST_TAKEN table are shown.SELECT cid,tcid,number FROM db2cert.test_taken
The output of this SELECT statement is shown below.CID TCID NUMBER --- ---- ------ 111 TX01 500 111 TX01 501 111 TX01 502 222 TR01 500 222 TR01 502 222 TR01 502 333 TX01 500 333 TX01 501 333 TX01 502 9 record(s) selected.
The order of the columns in the result table will always match the order in the select list. The order of the columns as they were defined in the CREATE TABLE or CREATE VIEW statement is ignored when a select list is provided in the SQL statement. In this example, the order of the columns is similar to the order in the CREATE TABLE statement, since the CID column was defined prior to TCID and NUMBER columns.Changing the Order of the Columns
Permutation is the relational operation that allows you to change the order of the columns in your result table. Permutation is used every time you select columns in an order different than the order defined in the CREATE TABLE statement. For example, to pomp the test heart ID prior to the candidate IDs and the test number, you could execute the following:SELECT tcid,cid,number FROM db2cert.test_taken
The result of this SELECT statement specifies a select list in a different order than was defined in the table definition.TCID CID NUMBER ---- --- ------ TX01 111 500 TX01 111 501 TX01 111 502 TR01 222 500 TR01 222 502 TR01 222 502 TX01 333 500 TX01 333 501 TX01 333 502 9 record(s) selected.
We advert to the output of a SELECT statement as the result table because the output of gross SELECT statements can subsist considered a relational table.Restricting Rows from a Table
Restriction is a relational operation that will filter the resulting rows of a table. Restriction can subsist accomplished through the expend of predicates defined in a SQL WHERE clause. To restrict the result set, they necessity to add a WHERE clause to the SQL statement.
A predicate is a condition placed on the data. The result of the condition is TRUE, FALSE, or UNKNOWN.
The WHERE clause specifies conditions or predicates that must subsist evaluated by DB2 before the result table is returned to the conclude user. There are many convincing types of predicates that can subsist used. In the following example, the equality (=) predicate is used to restrict the records to only those candidates who believe taken a DB2 Certification test at the test heart TR01.SELECT tcid,cid FROM db2cert.test_taken WHERE tcid ='TR01'
The WHERE clause too accepts other comparison operators, such as greater than (>), less than (<), greater than or equal to (>=), less than or equal to (<=), and not equal to (<>).This statement is an specimen of a basic predicate. A basic predicate compares two values. In addition, more tangled predicates, such as LIKE, BETWEEN, and IN, are too convincing and will subsist discussed later.
Trying to execute this specimen SQL statement will result in a data type compatibility error, because the column TCID is defined with a user-defined data type (UDT).Predicate Evaluation for UDTs
The column TCID was defined as a user-defined data type. To earn the comparison in the WHERE clause valid, a casting function needs to subsist used. This is not mandatory if the comparison is to a literal or host variable. This technique is however demonstrated below:SELECT tcid, cid FROM db2cert.test_taken WHERE tcid=CAST('TR01' AS db2cert.center_id)
Predicate evaluation requires that the data types subsist compatible (same data type or a compatible data type). They can accomplish the data type conversion (cast) using one of two methods:
Refer to Chapter 15, "Object Relational Programming," for more information on casting for UDTs.
Although not always mandatory, casting is recommended to ensure compatible data types are compared, including length and scale. This allows DB2 to resolve these as indexable rather than stage 2 predicates.Restricting Rows Using Multiple Conditions
It is viable to combine multiple conditions (predicates) in a separate SQL statement. The predicates can subsist combined using Boolean operators, such as the AND or OR operators. These operators allow you to combine multiple conditions in a separate SQL statement. The order of the predicate evaluation will not impress the result set (known as set closure).
The next specimen retrieves the records for the test candidates who took a test at test heart TR01 and achieved a score greater than 65. The rows that meet the predicates are known as the qualifying rows. The following specimen is an SQL statement using multiple predicates:SELECT tcid,cid,score FROM db2cert.test_taken WHERE tcid= CAST('TR01' AS db2cert.center_id) AND score > 65 Selecting Columns from Multiple Tables
There are basically two operations that combine columns from multiple tables in a separate SQL statement. These operations areCartesian Product
A Cartesian product is a relational operation that will merge gross the values from one table with gross the values from another table. This operation is not used frequently because the result table can subsist very large. The number of rows in the result table is always equal to the product of the number of rows in the qualifying rows for each of the tables being accessed.
The DB2 optimizer may elect to utilize a Cartesian product of unrelated tables if this is deemed to subsist an efficient system of accessing multiple tables. An specimen would subsist two single-row tables that are joined with a big table. The cross-product of 1 ∴ 1 = 1; thus the big table access is deferred as late as possible, with a potential increase in the restrictive predicates that can subsist applied without incurring the overhead of a big Cartesian result. This system of table access is typical in processing queries against a star schema data model.
The following specimen is a Cartesian product of gross test numbers and test names from the TEST table, with gross candidates from the TEST_TAKEN table. First, select from the TEST table.SELECT number, appellation FROM db2cert.test NUMBER NAME ------ -------------------------------------------------- 500 DB2 Fundamentals 501 DB2 Administration 502 DB2 Application Development 3 record(s) selected. Next select of gross candidates from the test_taken table. SELECT cid,tcid FROM db2cert.test_taken CID TCID --- ---- 222 TR01 222 TR01 222 TR01 111 TX01 111 TX01 111 TX01 333 TX01 333 TX01 333 TX01 9 record(s) selected.
Then combine the two tables to shape a Cartesian product result table.SELECT db2cert.test_taken.number,cid,tcid FROM db2cert.test_taken,db2cert.test NUMBER CID TCID ------ --- ---- 500 111 TX01 501 111 TX01 502 111 TX01 500 222 TR01 502 222 TR01 502 222 TR01 500 333 TX01 501 333 TX01 502 333 TX01 500 111 TX01 501 111 TX01 502 111 TX01 500 222 TR01 502 222 TR01 502 222 TR01 500 333 TX01 501 333 TX01 502 333 TX01 500 111 TX01 501 111 TX01 502 111 TX01 500 222 TR01 502 222 TR01 502 222 TR01 500 333 TX01 501 333 TX01 502 333 TX01 27 record(s) selected.
There are two tables referenced in the FROM clause of this query. The tables are separated by commas. There is no relationship expression in the WHERE clause. This type of query results in a Cartesian product.
The result table is a representation of gross viable combinations of the input tables. The TEST table has three rows, and the TEST_TAKEN table has nine rows. Therefore, the SELECT statement shown above returns 27 rows. Note the first column appellation in this query. It is necessary to fully qualify the column appellation by providing the schema appellation and table appellation with the column appellation because this column exists in both the TEST table and TEST_TAKEN table. In this case, they needed to specify that the NUMBER column is to subsist retrieved from the DB2CERT.TEST_TAKEN table and not from the DB2CERT.TEST table.
By adding a predicate to a Cartesian product SQL query, the result table can delineate a more useful representation of the data. In the specimen below, the query represents gross of the tests that were taken by the candidate whose ID is 111.SELECT db2cert.test_taken.number,cid,tcid FROM db2cert.test_taken,db2cert.test WHERE cid='111' NUMBER CID TCID ------ --- ---- 500 111 TX01 500 111 TX01 500 111 TX01 501 111 TX01 501 111 TX01 501 111 TX01 502 111 TX01 502 111 TX01 502 111 TX01 9 record(s) selected.
Adding a WHERE clause to your query does not always provide the desired result. In the specimen shown above, you want to know gross of the tests that were taken by the candidate whose ID is 111, and the query returns nine rows. But they know from previous queries that the candidate took only three tests. The query in the specimen above has a WHERE clause to filter out the candidate whose ID is 111 from the TEST_TAKEN table, but there was no filter on the TEST_CENTER table. Therefore, the result of the query would always subsist a multiple of the number of testing centers. Usually, when multiple tables are referenced, you should involve a cross-table relationship using a table merge or combine method, as shown in the following example. They will examine table combine methods further in the next section.SELECT db2cert.test_taken.number,cid,tcid FROM db2cert.test_taken,db2cert.test WHERE cid= '111' AND db2cert.test_taken.number=db2cert.test.number NUMBER CID TCID ------ --- ---- 500 111 TX01 501 111 TX01 502 111 TX01 3 record(s) selected.
To avoid data redundancy, it is recommended that the database tables subsist normalized. Following a normalization process, a number of related tables will exist. To meet some of the required queries, the tables must subsist reconstructed. The tables are reconstructed temporarily, using a table combine strategy to bear a single-result table.
The result tables in the previous examples usually provided candidate ID numbers and not the complete appellation of the test candidates. The candidate IDs are stored in the TEST_TAKEN table, and the plenary names are stored in the CANDIDATE table. To obtain the appellation of a candidate, the data must subsist retrieved from the CANDIDATE table, using a relationship or combine strategy.
Consider an specimen that will list the names and phone numbers of candidates who were registered to engage a DB2 Certification test in 2000. To accomplish this, they necessity to select data from two different tables:
Let's retrieve a list of candidate names, phone numbers, and IDs from the CANDIDATE table. The candidate names were stored in multiple columns to allow for effortless retrieval by ultimate name.SELECT fname,initial,lname,hphone,cid FROM db2cert.candidate
The output of this specimen follows. Pay special attention to the values in the CID column. It will subsist used as the combine column in the next example.FNAME INITIAL LNAME HPHONE CID -------- ------- ---------- ---------- --- Bill B Wong 1115551234 111 George Baklarz 2226543455 222 Susan M Visser 4442314244 333 Glen R Sheffield 5552143244 444 Jim G Stittle 6662341234 555 Kevin W Street 7773142134 666 Bert F Nicol 8886534534 777 Paul C Zikopoulos 9992112212 888 8 record(s) selected.
Now, let's retrieve the ID numbers of those candidates who were registered to engage the test in 2000.SELECT discrete cid FROM db2cert.test_taken WHERE YEAR(date_taken) = 2000 CID --- 222 111 333 3 record(s) selected.
The candidate IDs in the TEST_TAKEN table must correspond to a candidate ID in the CANDIDATE table because of the declarative referential integrity constraints. The parent table in the relationship is the CANDIDATE table and the child table (dependent table) is the TEST_TAKEN table.
The result table from the above query does not involve the test candidate 444, since that candidate did not believe a test scheduled for 2000. They necessity to combine the two result tables based on the candidate ID values. This column is known as the combine column.
Query performance can significantly ameliorate if the combine columns are appropriately indexed.
The following separate query will meet the end-user requirement.SELECT discrete fname,initial,lname,hphone FROM db2cert.test_taken,db2cert.candidate WHERE YEAR(date_taken) = 2000 AND db2cert.test_taken.cid=db2cert.candidate.cid
A table combine requires a predicate that includes an expression based on columns from the tables referenced in the FROM clause. This is known as a combine predicate. The FROM clause has not changed from the Cartesian product examples. The only variation is in the combine predicate (test_taken.cid = candidate.cid).
An alternative shape of the FROM clause for joins involves explicitly coding the combine keyword between the tables (rather than using a comma) and coding the combine predicates in the ON clause rather than in the WHERE clause. This system of coding will subsist covered in more detail in Chapter 4, "Advanced SQL Coding."
The table names needed to subsist explicitly stated because there is a column named CID in both of the referenced tables. When multiple tables are being accessed in a separate query, any selected columns that occur in more than one table must subsist qualified with the table name.
An error will occur if the columns being referenced are obscure (not properly qualified).
The maximum number of foundation tables that can subsist in a separate SQL statement is 225; however, you are limited to 15 tables in a combine (the FROM clause).
The 15-table restrict can subsist increased by updating the macro SPRMMXT to a value greater than 15.
This benign of combine operation shown in the above specimen is too known as an inner join. An inner combine displays only the rows that are present in both of the joined tables.Using Correlation Names
If each of the columns needed to subsist fully qualified with the table name, such as tableschema.tablename.columnname, the queries would become very big and cumbersome to drudgery with. Fortunately, there is an easier course to qualify the obscure columns resulting from a multitable SELECT statement.
The columns can subsist qualified using a correlation name. A correlation appellation is a temporary alias for the tables referenced in an SQL statement. They rewrite the previous query using correlated names as follows:SELECT discrete fname,initial,lname,hphone FROM db2cert.test_taken tt, db2cert.candidate c WHERE YEAR(date_taken) = 2000 AND tt.cid = c.cid
The correlation appellation immediately follows the appellation of the table as stated in the FROM clause. In this example, the correlated appellation for the TEST_TAKEN table is tt, and the correlated appellation for the CANDIDATE table is c.
Correlation names can subsist optionally prefixed with the AS keyword, such as DB2CERT.CANDITATE AS C. This is purely for readability.
The correlated names are accessible within the SQL statement only. Following the execution of the SQL statement, the correlation appellation is no longer defined. Once a correlation appellation has been defined, it can subsist referenced in the comfort of the query instead of the table name. However, the table appellation can silent subsist referenced.
Use simple, easy-to-remember correlation names. Table initials are suited candidates for correlation names.Sorting Your Output
We believe been retrieving data from one or more tables. The order of the result table has not been specified in any of the SQL statements. Therefore, the data is retrieved in an undetermined order if there is no ORDER BY clause in the SQL statement.
The only guaranteed course to return data in the required sequence is with the ORDER BY clause. Any data retrieval that is currently returned in sequence without this clause is purely based upon the data retrieval system at the time. A future access path change may not return the data in the same sequence.
The following specimen produces a list of the test candidates in alphabetical order by ultimate appellation for the candidates who believe taken a DB2 Certification test at the TR01 test center.SELECT lname,initial,fname FROM db2cert.candidate c,db2cert.test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid AND tcid='TR01' ORDER BY lname
This specimen contains a modern clause, ORDER BY. After the ORDER BY clause, you can list the columns that will specify the sort order and the type of sort.
Appropriate indexing may allow DB2 to avoid sorting the data to match the ORDER BY clause. If the data is already sequenced via the index, DB2 may elect to utilize the index and avoid sorting the data. DB2 cannot avoid a sort for an ORDER BY involving columns from more than one table. Where possible, involve columns from only one table in the ORDER BY to give DB2 greater occasion for sort avoidance.
The SQL can subsist modified so that the output is changed to descending order by ultimate appellation and a secondary order column on the first appellation in ascending order.SELECT lname,fname,hphone FROM db2cert.candidate c,db2cert.test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid AND tcid= 'TR01' ORDER BY lname DESC, fname
In this example, the DESC keyword that follows the lname column indicates that the result table should subsist in descending order based on the ultimate name. More than one record can believe the same ultimate name. This situation is quite common. There is a second column specified in the ORDER BY clause, fname. There is no keyword specifying the sort sequence based on the fname column. Therefore, the default ordering sequence (ascending) is used.
The next specimen contains three columns lname, fname, and hphone. You can reference the column that should subsist used to sort the data using the column appellation or by specifying its position in the select list. Using the column position is useful when the column in the select list is made up of derived columns (calculated columns) that believe no express name.SELECT lname,fname,hphone FROM db2cert.candidate c,db2cert.test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid AND tcid='TR01' ORDER BY 1 DESC, 2
In this example, the sort order is specified using the column position. Therefore, the query result is exactly the same as the in previous example.
You can too assign an alternative column appellation using column renaming. The assigned appellation can then subsist referenced in the ORDER BY clause, and it appears as the column heading where appropriate.
Although useful, coding a column position rather than a column (or renamed column) in the ORDER BY clause may lead to a different sequence if another column is inadvertently added to the query that alters the column positioning.
The ORDER BY clause must succeed gross subselects in the FULLSELECT statement. The only clauses that can succeed the ORDER BY clause are the for FOR FETCH ONLY, FOR READ ONLY, OPTIMIZE, WITH QUERYNO, FETCH FIRST n ROWS clauses.Derived Columns
There are some cases when you will necessity to fulfill calculations on the data. The SQL language has some basic mathematical and string functions built in. Mathematical operations involve benchmark addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.
The calculation can subsist defined in the WHERE clause of the SQL statement or the select list. Suppose that you necessity to compute a passing rate for a DB2 test. The passing rate is defined as the percentage of candidates that pass the test (totalpassed*100/totaltaken). The following SQL statement will accomplish this for us for test number 500:SELECT number, totalpassed*100/totaltaken FROM test WHERE number='500'
In this example, the second column of the output list is a calculated column. recall that you must expend the column position if you want to expend this calculated column for the ORDER BY clause unless you appellation it (as they now discuss).
Occasionally, the results of a derived column may not pomp as expected. The specimen using totalpassed*100/totaltaken will result in a value of 66 being retrieved. Since both the totalpassed and totaltaken columns are integers, the final result is too an integer, and the fractional allotment is discarded. If this is not your desired result, you should expend other functions (like decimal) to change the course the calculation is performed or displayed.Naming Derived/Calculated Columns
You can specify a column appellation for any expression. When you provide the derived (calculated) column with a name, the ORDER BY clause can reference the derived appellation to allow for a more readable SQL statement.
The following SQL calculates the percentage of people that believe passed the DB2 Certification exams and orders the output in descending order of the passing rate.SELECT number,totalpassed*100/totaltaken AS PassedRate FROM test ORDER BY PassedRate DESC
The AS clause is used to rename the default appellation of an ingredient in the select list. In this example, they are giving the appellation of PassedRate to the result of the division of columns totalpassed by totaltaken. The named column is used in the query to specify the column that should subsist used for sorting the output.
The AS keyword is optional, although it should subsist added for readability. Without the AS clause, it may subsist unclear whether the objective was to rename a column or a comma was missed between two retrieved columns.Functions
In DB2, there are different types of functions provided. For example, two types of functions provided by DB2 are scalar and column functions (a third type of function called a table function is discussed in Chapter 15, "Object Relational Programming."
Scalar functions (also known as row functions) provide a result for each row of the result table. A scalar function can subsist used any situation an expression is allowed.
Column functions (also known as vector functions) drudgery with a group of rows to provide a result. The group is specified using a FULLSELECT and optionally grouped using the GROUP BY clause.
In this section, they interlard you to some of the SQL functions provided with DB2. SQL functions are categorized by their implementation type. Either the functions are built in or they are extensions of DB2 and are known as user-defined functions (UDFs).
Built-in functions are defined within the SQL standards, and they are provided by DB2. These can subsist either scalar or column functions.
UDFs are not defined within the SQL standards because they are extensions of the current SQL language. These functions can subsist developed by a DB2 administrator or application developer. UDFs can subsist either scalar or table functions, but not column functions. Once the UDFs believe been created, they can subsist invoked by any conclude user with the proper privileges. For more information about UDFs, advert to Chapter 15.
Scalar functions are applied to each row of data, and there is a per-row result provided. If they want to retrieve only the first three digits of telephone numbers for each candidate, they could expend a scalar function. The function that is used is called SUBSTR. The arguments for this function involve a string data type column, a beginning offset, and length. The output data type and attribute of the function depend on the input data type and attribute. The following specimen retrieves the telephone area code for the column wphone.SELECT lname, SUBSTR(CHAR(wphone),1,3) FROM db2cert.candidate
The SUBSTR function is a scalar function. In this example, SUBSTR returns a character string of three characters. The result string corresponds to the first three characters of the wphone column. This function is known as a string function because it works with any string data type. If they wanted to provide the output column with a meaningful name, they could provide an alias, as was done for calculated columns.
In the specimen above, the substring starts from the beginning of the string, because they testify one (1) as the second parameter of the function. The length of the resulting string is indicated in the third argument. In their example, the length is three. Note that the data type of the wphone column is phone, so a casting function is used to metamorphose the phone data type to the char data type.
The following query will provide the month when the exam was taken. The input for this function is a DATE string, and the output is an integer.SELECT fname, MONTH (date_taken) FROM candidate c, test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid Column Functions
Column functions provide a separate result for a group of qualifying rows for a specified table or view. Many common queries can subsist satisfied using column functions where they involve common tasks, such as finding the smallest value, the largest value, or the tolerable value for a group of data records. In the following specimen you can obtain the maximum length of time of any of the DB2 Certification exams:SELECT MAX("length") FROM test
Because the length column shares its appellation with the length scalar function, the column appellation is encased within double-quotes to distinguish this as a column and not a function.
If they added a WHERE clause to this example, the maximum would delineate the maximum length for the qualifying rows, since the predicate is used to filter the data prior to the application of the MAX function.
This next specimen calculates the tolerable of the number of seats for gross of the test centers. Notice the column function AVG is used in this example:SELECT AVG(noseats) FROM test_center
DB2 provides many more built-in functions. If you are interested in calculating statistical information, you can expend statistical functions, such as VARIANCE, STDDEV, or a sampling of these functions.
MAX and MIN functions can subsist either column or scalar functions depending on the input arguments.Grouping Values
Many queries require some flush of aggregated data. This is accomplished in SQL through the expend of the GROUP BY clause. The following SQL obtains the tolerable number of seats for each country:SELECT country, AVG(noseats) FROM test_center GROUP BY country
This SQL statement obtains the tolerable number of seats per country, and the GROUP BY clause tells DB2 to group together the rows that believe the same values in the columns indicated in the GROUP BY list. In their example, they are grouping countries into subsets. As the subsets are created, DB2 calculates the tolerable of each of those groups or subsets, in this case, by each country.
When you combine column functions and other elements, such as column names, scalar functions, or calculated columns, you must expend the GROUP BY clause. In this case, you must involve every ingredient that is not a column function in the GROUP BY list. The only elements that can subsist omitted in the GROUP BY list are constant values.
The next SQL statement obtains a list that includes the tolerable slice score and minimum test length for the DB2 Certification exams. They group this list by the type of exam, as follows:SELECT type, AVG(cut_score), MIN("length") FROM test GROUP BY type
Appropriate indexing can allow DB2 to avoid a sort to group the data rows to match the GROUP BY clause.
It is viable to sort the output of the previous specimen using an ORDER BY clause.
GROUP BY may return data in the same order as an ORDER BY, but this is not guaranteed and is based upon the access path. The only system to guarantee data sequence is with an ORDER BY.Restricting the expend of Sets of Data
Up to now, they believe discussed how to restrict output based on row conditions. With SQL, it is too viable to restrict that output using column functions and the GROUP BY clause. Suppose you want a list of gross the test centers that believe administered more than five DB2 Certification exams. To earn it easier to understand, let's first find the number of tests that believe been taken in each test center.SELECT tcid, count(*) FROM test_taken GROUP BY tcid
We expend the signify column function to find the total number of tests that believe been taken in each test center. When you expend an asterisk (*) with the signify function, you are indicating that you want the number of rows in a table that meet the criteria established in the SQL statement. In this example, they are grouping by TCID because they believe a number of occurrences for gross the test centers in the TEST_TAKEN table. The TEST_TAKEN table has an entry for every DB2 Certification exam that has been taken. Finally, the output is restricted to only those test centers that believe administered more than four exams.SELECT tcid FROM test_taken GROUP BY tcid HAVING COUNT(*) > 4
This specimen introduces the HAVING clause. The HAVING clause is equivalent to the WHERE clause for groups and column functions. The HAVING clause will restrict the result set to only the groups that meet the condition specified in it. In their example, only the test centers that believe administered more than four DB2 Certification exams will subsist displayed.Eliminating Duplicates
When you execute a query, you might find duplicate rows in the respond set. The SQL language provides a special clause to remove the duplicate rows from your output. The following SQL generates a list of names and phone numbers for gross the candidates who believe taken a test. In the following example, they eliminate the duplicate rows from their output list using the discrete clause.SELECT discrete fname,wphone,hphone FROM candidate c,test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid
The discrete clause can too subsist used with the signify function. When you expend discrete inside a signify function, it will not signify the duplicate entries for a particular column. The following specimen allows you to signify how many different test centers believe candidates registered.SELECT COUNT(DISTINCT tcid) FROM test_taken
This specimen provides the number of test centers that are registered in the TEST_TAKEN table. recall that gross the candidates who believe registered for DB2 Certification exams are stored in this table. earn positive that you understand the variation between COUNT(*), COUNT(colname), and COUNT(DISTINCT colname). They are very similar in syntax but disagree in function.
COUNT(*) returns a signify of gross rows that qualify against the WHERE clause. COUNT(colname) returns a signify of gross rows that qualify against the WHERE clause, with null occurrences of colname removed. COUNT(DISTINCT colname) counts discrete occurrences of colname, with nulls removed.Searching for String Patterns
SQL has a powerful predicate that allows you to search for patterns in character string columns. This is the enjoy predicate. Suppose you want to generate a list of the candidates whose first appellation starts with the letter G.SELECT fname,lname,wphone,hphone FROM candidate WHERE fname enjoy 'G%' ORDER BY lname,fname
In this query, they expend a wildcard character with the enjoy predicate. In SQL, the percent character (%) is a substitute for zero or more characters. The search string G% can subsist substituted with names enjoy George, Gary, Ginger, and so on (since the percent character can substitute zero or more characters, the search string can too subsist a separate letter G).
The percent character can subsist used any situation in the search string. It too can subsist used as many times as you necessity it. The percent token is not case-sensitive, so it can engage the situation of uppercase or lowercase letters. However, the constant characters included in your search string are case-sensitive.
Another wildcard character used with the enjoy predicate is the underline character (_). This character substitutes one and only one character. The underline character can engage the situation of any character. However, the underline character cannot subsist substituted for an void character.
If the pattern needs to search for occurrences of the wildcard characters % and _ as their actual values, then the eschew clause is used to specify a character that precedes the percent or underscore in the pattern.
The previous SQL can subsist modified to involve gross candidates' names and the telephone numbers for those candidates whose appellation has a lowercase letter "a" as its second letter.SELECT fname,lname,wphone,hphone FROM candidate WHERE fname enjoy '_a%' ORDER BY lname,fname
This specimen uses two wildcard characters that drudgery with the enjoy predicate. The search string in this specimen can involve names, such as Paul, Gabriel, or Natalie. (The first character may subsist any character, the lowercase letter "a" is the second character in the string, and the string ends with any number of characters.)
When the pattern in a enjoy predicate is a fixed-length host variable, the revise length must subsist specified for the string to subsist returned. 'G%' assigned to an 8-byte variable (LIKE :variable) will search for gross occurrences of 'G% ' (G, followed by any character, followed by 6 blank characters). To find rows that inaugurate with a G, then 'G%%%%%%%' should subsist assigned to the fixed-length variable.Searching for Data in Ranges
SQL too offers us a orbit operator. This operator is used to restrict rows that are in a particular orbit of values. reckon the requirement to list those candidates whose scores in the DB2 Certification exam are between 60 and 75.SELECT discrete fname,lname,wphone,hphone FROM candidate c, test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid AND score BETWEEN 60 AND 75
The BETWEEN predicate includes the values that you specify for searching your data. An primary fact about the BETWEEN predicate is that it can drudgery with character ranges as well.
In addition to the score requirement, this specimen modifies the SQL to involve only those candidates whose ultimate appellation begins with a letter between B and G.SELECT discrete fname,lname,wphone,hphone FROM candidate c, test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid AND score BETWEEN 60 AND 75 AND lname BETWEEN 'B' AND 'GZ'
In this example, the second BETWEEN predicate contains character values. They necessity to specify the GZ value to involve gross the viable names that start with the letter G. This was done assuming that the letter Z is the ultimate viable value in the alphabet.
The arguments of the BETWEEN clause are not interchangeable; the first must specify the low value, and the second, the elevated value. BETWEEN 1 AND 2 will return gross values within the orbit (inclusive of 1 and 2). BETWEEN 2 AND 1 will return zero rows.Searching for Null Values
Null values delineate an unknown value for a particular event of an entity. They can expend a null value in the cases where they don't know a particular value of a column. Let's philosophize that they want a list of gross those candidates whose score is not yet input. This condition is represented with a null value.SELECT fname,lname,wphone,hphone FROM candidate c, test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid AND score IS NULL
The IS predicate is used to search for the null value in this example. recall that the null value means "unknown." Because it has no particular value, it can't subsist compared with other values. You can't expend conditional operands, such as equal (=) or greater than (>), with null values.Searching for Negative Conditions
The BETWEEN, IS, and enjoy predicates always eye for the values that meet a particular condition. These predicates can too subsist used to eye for values that don't meet a particular criterion.
The NOT predicate can subsist used to eye for the opposite condition, combined with the LIKE, BETWEEN, and IS predicate, to accomplish negative searches, as shown in the following example. This specimen has a enjoy predicate combined with the NOT predicate. They want a list of those candidates whose ultimate names Do not start with the letter S.SELECT discrete fname,lname,wphone,hphone FROM candidate WHERE lname NOT enjoy 'S%' ORDER BY lname,fname
The next specimen has a BETWEEN predicate combined with the NOT predicate. They want the list of those candidates whose score, in any test, is not in the orbit 60 to 75.SELECT discrete fname,lname,wphone,hphone FROM candidate c, test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid AND integer(score) NOT BETWEEN 60 and 75
In this example, the NOT predicate will exclude gross the values that are in the orbit 60 to 75.
Negation can too subsist applied to the null value. This SQL produces a report that searches for those candidates that believe a seat number assigned. This is expressed with a NOT NULL value.SELECT discrete fname,lname,wphone,hphone FROM candidate c, test_taken tt WHERE c.cid=tt.cid AND seat_no IS NOT NULL
The NOT operator can too subsist used to negate the benchmark comparison operators, =, <, <=, >, and >=.
When dealing with nulls, NOT or negation may not return the opposite of the positive logic. For example, WHERE SEAT_NO = 1 will return only the rows for seat number 1. Any value other than 1 is discarded, as these rows are FALSE, including nulls, since these are unknown. WHERE SEAT_NO <> 1 excludes rows where the seat number is 1, and too discards nulls because these are unknown.Searching for a Set of Values
In SQL, it is viable to establish a restriction condition based on a set of values. Suppose that you necessity a list of the test centers that believe candidates registered for the DB2 Fundamentals test and for the DB2 Application progress test. This can subsist queried with the following statement:SELECT discrete name,phone FROM test_center tc, test_taken tt WHERE tc.tcid=tt.tcid AND (number = '500' or number ='502')
To simplify structure multiple OR conditions when multiple values for the same column are being compared, it is viable to rewrite the statement using the IN clause.SELECT discrete name,phone FROM test_center tc, test_taken tt WHERE tc.tcid=tt.tcid AND number IN ('500','502')
The IN clause is used to denote a set of values. In this example, they expend a constant set of values.
You can too expend the NOT predicate with the IN clause. In this case, the condition will subsist honest when a value is not present in the set of values provided to the IN clause. You can expend as many values as you wish in the IN clause, within the defined limits of the size of a SQL statement.Advanced Selection Functionality
In Chapter 4, "Advanced SQL Coding," they will eye at more of the functionality and power of the SELECT statement. They will cover topics such as
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