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000-633 protest Oriented Analysis and Design - Part 1

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000-633 exam Dumps Source : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - Part 1

Test Code : 000-633
Test appellation : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - Part 1
Vendor appellation : IBM
: 105 existent Questions

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IBM protest Oriented Analysis and

Object-Oriented analysis and Design | killexams.com existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

This chapter is from the publication 

evaluation emphasizes an investigation of the difficulty and necessities, in dwelling of an answer. for instance, if a current on-line trading device is preferred, how will or not it's used? What are its features?

"evaluation" is a big term, most suitable qualified, as in necessities analysis (an investigation of the requirements) or object-oriented evaluation (an investigation of the domain objects).

Design emphasizes a conceptual solution (in utility and hardware) that fulfills the requirements, in dwelling of its implementation. as an example, an profile of a database schema and software objects. Design ideas frequently exclude low-stage or "obtrusive" particulars—glaring to the intended buyers. sooner or later, designs will besides live implemented, and the implementation (akin to code) expresses the actual and comprehensive realized design.

As with analysis, the term is most useful certified, as in object-oriented design or database design.

advantageous evaluation and design were summarized in the phrase enact the commandeer thing (evaluation), and enact the element perquisite (design).

An mode to Assessing and evaluating Object-Oriented evaluation strategies | killexams.com existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps


An mode to Assessing and comparing Object-Oriented evaluation strategies

Many object-oriented evaluation (OOA) strategies are now accessible for spend in device evaluation. The methods possess many middling essential features. for instance, they build analysis models for techniques and provide an analysis system for building these models. despite the fact, the details of the facets may besides live described in a different course on account of the diverse goals of analyzing programs with protest orientation. The details ought to live assessed with a purpose to endure in repartee the facets accurately in the system, or the points exigency to live compared precisely in diverse strategies. this text gifts a framework as a device for assessing the particulars of the orthodox fundamental aspects in particular person OOA methods, and explores the dependency of the points.

Many object-oriented evaluation (OOA) methods are actually purchasable for analyzing and modeling a device with objects. My colleagues and that i possess used some of them in case reports 1, 2 and besides analyzed a brace of OOA strategies in detail to locate how they assist OOA. Their analysis establish that each one of those OOA strategies possess seven an identical yardstick features: evaluation models, modeling ideas, primary principles, analysis strategies, evaluation procedures, requirement sources, and evaluation deliverables. These aspects exist with based relationships; that's, a feature may additionally rely on different aspects (see Fig. 1). All of those fundamental facets pilot the ordinary objective of OOA strategies: to construct the article evaluation model for a gadget through an evaluation manner.

however, the methods might besides define these essential facets with distinct particulars, as they are looking to build their own evaluation models for a system. as an example, the article Modeling technique (OMT) three defines the analysis for a gadget model with three petite models (object, dynamic, and useful models). The Coad/Yourdon formulation 4 and the Wirfs-Brock components 5 profile just one mannequin for a equipment. yet another instance is that OMT three defines a category with attributes while the Wirfs-Brock formula four defines a class without attributes. hence, to purchase note the zone of expertise of an OOA system and its precise ameliorations from other OOA methods, they must find out how the mode defines particulars of the facets and besides how the facets depend on each and every other. in addition, they may soundless find out to what extent the similarities and differences between OOA methods are true, in preference to merely obvious, once they compare the methods in response to their elements.

Some comparative experiences of OO strategies were executed (e.g., Arnold et al., 6 de Champeaux and Faure, 7 Fowler, 8 and Monarchi and Puhr 9 ) during the past primarily based upon aspects corresponding to these outlined. youngsters, the studios or researchers dwelling shrimp accent on examining the details of the features and the relationships between the elements in particular person OOA strategies. they possess created a framework that contains a group of commonplace basic aspects of OOA strategies and assesses the features with a based structure, in order that an OOA formulation will besides live realized, analyzed, and assessed in the course of the particulars of its features.

THE FRAMEWORKThe framework used for assessing the common simple points and their dependencies in individual OOA strategies is proven in determine 2. in the diagram, each rectangular container represents a function; each and every solid line represents a elegant relationship between two elements; and each arrow represents a probable requirement aid of analysis.

The typical elementary features covered by the framework are specified as follows:

  • The basic precept: simple legal guidelines of analysis.
  • The evaluation model: a view and representation of a equipment. different types of models could live built through a course to symbolize distinct views and elements of the device one after the other. A model is defined at the side of a set of modeling ideas. each modeling view is an summary theory at the back of the company of evaluation; that's, it abstracts and specifies a particular piece of the gadget.
  • The Notation: a set of diagrammatic or textual symbols used to symbolize a model.
  • the strategy of OOA: a technique for using the process of analysis.
  • The source of Requirement: the particulars of an analyzed device.
  • The manner of OOA: a mode of constructing the model step by step. each step may soundless provide guidelines and criteria for building the rectify mannequin as it should be.
  • The Deliverable of analysis: the product generated through evaluation.
  • as an instance, table 1 indicates the primary elements of OMT three recognized the spend of the framework.

    The framework additionally hyperlinks the facets by course of their based relationships (represented through solid lines). as an instance, the notation is contingent upon the modeling ideas to live able to characterize them. The system of OOA is contingent upon the mannequin, as the procedure has to construct the model and the deliverable includes the model. The technique of OOA depends on the mode of OOA since it is pushed by means of a tactic of OOA , as an example, a data-pushed tactic creates the system to model objects and their attributes first, and a method-pushed tactic drives the process to mannequin objects and their operations first. Such elegant relationships between the facets can parade how the details of a characteristic may handle the particulars of an additional feature.

    THE procedure OF ASSESSING OOA methods the usage of THE FRAMEWORKWe illustrate a process of the usage of the framework to investigate an OOA mode in determine 3. each container in the diagram shows a step of the method. The stout arrows characterize the order of the steps. The dashed arrows symbolize the feature flows between the steps and the framework. In each and every step, a group of guidance is provided in accordance with the framework, which explores and assesses the particulars—corresponding to definitions—of the essential features of the OOA formulation. The answers are establish in line with the tasks throughout the evaluation.

    In perquisite here section, they clarify particulars of each and every step in the technique. OOA methods numbered from 1–10 (see desk 2) are assessed as examples of the usage of the framework throughout the process.

    determine simple concepts.

  • Which basic concepts does the OOA formulation spend for OOA? How are they described?

    Many OOA methods books interpolate and complicated the primary principles employed by using the methods. You must live privy to the definition or significance of each principle in every OOA components, as a precept could live termed otherwise or a time term may appellation just a few ideas with different meanings in diverse OOA methods. as an instance, table three lists the simple principles employed by the ten OOA methods.

    The terms exhibit that some principles corresponding to abstraction are employed by a brace of formula and others corresponding to zone are simplest employed via one. despite the fact, the meanings of the ideas disclose which time term represents the equal thing and which does not. as an example:

  • The abstraction principle refers to several types of abstraction within the strategies (see Step 2).
  • The encapsulation principle besides skill counsel hiding in the methods apart from with the Wirfs-Brock formulation and HOOD: Encapsulation capability the separation of exterior facets of an protest from its inner ones, and simplest exterior features may besides live seen through other objects. both methods profile "encapsulation" and "advice hiding" otherwise: Encapsulation skill the combination of the statistics and the operations that possess an consequence on statistics in objects, and counsel hiding skill to conceal the interior details of an protest from different objects.
  • The inheritance precept has the equal which means within the nine strategies that spend it. (HOOD doesn't spend this principle.)
  • the size precept within the Coad/Yourdon formulation is akin to the domain precept in Syntropy: Scale is a precept that courses a reader through a huge model by using partitioning it into smaller components. zone is a means of dividing a materiel description, notwithstanding now not of gadget execution, into smaller parts, i.e., subsystem descriptions.
  • Why does the formula elect to spend such principles?

    distinctive OOA strategies may additionally elect to originate spend of diverse simple concepts for distinctive factors. as an instance, the Wirfs-Brock formula analyzes the useful connections as opposed to the facts relationships between objects. OMT focuses on the protest constitution but not on the messages flowing between objects. therefore, the principle "emphasis on protest constitution" is used by OMT and the principle "verbal exchange with messages" is used with the aid of the Wirfs-Brock formulation. Answering this query helps purchase into account the goals of the formulation more exactly and deeply.

  • Object-Oriented evaluation And Design — Introduction (part 1) | killexams.com existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    The theory Of Object-Orientation

    Object-orientation is what’s called a programming paradigm. It’s no longer a language itself but a set of concepts that is supported by using many languages.

    if you aren’t yardstick with the ideas of object-orientation, you may purchase a peek at the sage of Object-Oriented Programming.

    If every shrimp thing they enact in these languages is object-oriented, it capacity, we're oriented or concentrated round objects.

    Now in an object-oriented language, this one big application will instead live rupture up apart into self contained objects, well-nigh enjoy having a number of mini-courses, each protest representing a special a Part of the software.

    and every protest consists of its personal data and its own logic, and they communicate between themselves.

    These objects aren’t random. They signify the manner you talk and believe concerning the difficulty you try to transparent up on your equable existence.

    They characterize things enjoy personnel, images, bank debts, spaceships, asteroids, video section, audio data, or something exists to your software.

    Object-Oriented evaluation And Design (OOAD)

    It’s a structured mode for inspecting, designing a gadget with the aid of making spend of the article-oriented ideas, and further a collection of graphical gadget models perquisite through the evolution lifestyles cycle of the application.

    OOAD within the SDLC

    The software life cycle is customarily divided up into levels going from summary descriptions of the problem to designs then to code and testing and finally to deployment.

    The earliest tiers of this mode are evaluation (requirements) and design.

    The mammoth disagreement between analysis and design is often described as “what Vs how”.

    In evaluation builders drudgery with clients and domain experts to profile what the system is meant to do. Implementation particulars are putative to live mostly or absolutely ignored at this phase.

    The objective of the analysis facet is to create a mannequin of the system regardless of constraints reminiscent of acceptable technology. here's customarily done by course of spend situations and summary definition of probably the most crucial objects using conceptual model.

    The design facet refines the evaluation model and applies the vital expertise and different implementation constrains.

    It specializes in describing the objects, their attributes, conduct, and interactions. The design mannequin may soundless possess All of the details required in order that programmers can dwelling in favor the design in code.

    They’re highest attribute conducted in an iterative and incremental utility methodologies. So, the actions of OOAD and the developed fashions aren’t achieved as soon as, they are able to revisit and refine these steps invariably.

    Object-Oriented evaluation

    within the object-oriented analysis, we …

  • Elicit requirements: profile what does the application deserve to do, and what’s the issue the software making an attempt to resolve.
  • Specify requirements: narrate the requirements, constantly, the usage of spend circumstances (and situations) or user reviews.
  • Conceptual model: identify the essential objects, refine them, and define their relationships and deportment and draw them in an facile diagram.
  • We’re no longer going to cover the primary two activities, simply the final one. These are already defined in element in requirements Engineering.

    Object-Oriented Design

    The analysis facet identifies the objects, their relationship, and habits the usage of the conceptual mannequin (an abstract definition for the objects).

    whereas in design phase, they narrate these objects (by means of developing sort diagram from conceptual diagram — continually mapping conceptual mannequin to classification diagram), their attributes, habits, and interactions.

    besides applying the utility design concepts and patterns which could live lined in later tutorials.

    The enter for object-oriented design is supplied by using the output of object-oriented analysis. but, evaluation and design can besides happen in parallel, and the outcomes of 1 pastime will besides live used by course of the other.

    in the object-oriented design, we …

  • Describe the courses and their relationships the spend of sort diagram.
  • Describe the interplay between the objects using sequence diagram.
  • follow utility design concepts and design patterns.
  • a class diagram gives a visual representation of the courses you want. And here is where you regain to live in fact particular about object-oriented ideas enjoy inheritance and polymorphism.

    Describing the interactions between these objects allows you to better endure in repartee the tasks of the diverse objects, the behaviors they deserve to have.

    — other diagrams

    there are many other diagrams they will spend to model the gadget from distinctive perspectives; interactions between objects, constitution of the device, or the conduct of the device and the course it responds to routine.

    It’s at All times about determining the rectify diagram for the rectify want. you should definitely understand which diagrams may live constructive when brooding about or discussing a circumstance that isn’t clear.

    device modeling and the distinct fashions they are able to spend can live discussed subsequent.

    device Modeling

    gadget modeling is the manner of establishing fashions of the equipment, with each and every mannequin representing a special views of that device.

    probably the most faultfinding element a few materiel model is that it leaves out element; It’s an summary illustration of the gadget.

    The models are usually in response to graphical notation, which is almost always based on the notations within the Unified Modeling Language (UML). other fashions of the system enjoy mathematical mannequin; a detailed materiel description.

    fashions are used All the course through the analysis mode to uphold to elicit the necessities, during the design technique to narrate the materiel to engineers, and after implementation to document the gadget constitution and operation.

    diverse views

    We can besides develop a model to picture the system from distinct perspectives.

  • external, where you model the context or the environment of the device.
  • interplay, where you model the interplay between add-ons of a device, or between a device and different methods.
  • Structural, where you model the corporation of the device, or the constitution of the statistics being processed via the equipment.
  • Behavioral, the dwelling you mannequin the dynamic deportment of the device and the course it respond to movements.
  • Unified Modeling Language (UML)

    The unified modeling language rotate into the regular modeling language for object-oriented modeling. It has many diagrams, youngsters, the most diagrams which are conventional are:

  • Use case diagram: It indicates the interaction between a materiel and it’s environment (users or programs) within a selected circumstance.
  • category diagram: It suggests the distinct objects, their relationship, their behaviors, and attributes.
  • Sequence diagram: It indicates the interactions between the diverse objects in the equipment, and between actors and the objects in a gadget.
  • State computer diagram: It indicates how the materiel reply to external and internal routine.
  • exercise diagram: It indicates the current of the statistics between the procedures in the system.
  • which you could enact diagramming drudgery on paper or on a whiteboard, at the least in the prefatory levels of a assignment. but there are some diagramming tools with a view to assist you to draw these UML diagrams.

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    Object Oriented Analysis and Design - Part 1

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    Object-Oriented Analysis and Design (Part 1) | killexams.com existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Who does this thing? Does it possess any benefit? If I enact this, will my boss mediate that I am wasting my time or making excuses to not work? possess these thoughts ever approach to your repartee when you were desperate to properly design your next software?

    It is besides feasible that you possess tried designing some piece of software before, but you establish that it was too just time-consuming and it had no benefits. But throughout your career, you might possess had these recurring thoughts that you should learn more about design patterns, mastering MVC, and designing something reusable, modular, and facile to read.

    In this multi-part article series, I will cover the basics about how you can properly design your next software even if you possess failed final time.

    What Will You Learn?
  • Why your final design attempt failed
  • How to handle your manager/boss when you wanted to design
  • How to succeed in designing
  • The software evolution process
  • What is object-oriented analysis?
  • What is object-oriented design?
  • What are design patterns?
  • And anything in between that is confusing you
  • What Will You Not Learn?
  • You will not learn the syntax of Java, C#, or C++
  • You will not learn the disagreement between functions and variables
  • You will not live overwhelmed with a list of design patterns
  • You will not learn object-oriented programming here
  • "What?" you might deliver after reading the final line. "No protest oriented programming? Then why am I wasting my time here?" This post is about object-oriented design, but not programming. They All know about object-oriented programming, i.e., how to write a class in C#.

    As one quote says, “Knowing how to hold a hammer does not originate you an architect.” True? Similarly, learning Java programming will not originate you a respectable software engineer (or software programmer or developer or software architect).


    During the initial years of my undergraduate programs, I thought designing was the identical as writing an algorithm because I did not study object-oriented programming. Later, when I scholarly about object-oriented programming, I thought someone could conquer the world if they just scholarly everything that is there in 1,000 pages of a Deitel and Deitel book.

    object oriented programming book

    But that was not the case. I could not write a program without tearing my hair apart. I besides noticed that if I opened my program again after six months, it looked enjoy such a mystery that even Sherlock Holmes could not unravel it.

    Then, in my fourth semester, I scholarly about object-oriented analysis and design as a subject. But unfortunately, the focus was on UML modeling. I thought that UML was a wintry thing — you just generate some diagrams and hand them over to developers and they will approach up with code using your designs (which will originate you proud).

    But there was even an option in the UML modeling implement that their class was using at that time to automatically generate the code from your UML class diagrams. What a beauty, I thought. I could design using UML models and then generate the code, compile it, ship it to a customer, and regain loaded enjoy Bill Gates. Awesome.


    Afterward, reality set in. I was never able to generate designs that were modular, facile to extend, and facile to understand (The code generated from these tools was never compiled, since it only generated stubs). Then, a term of chaos began.

    Later in my undergraduate study, I scholarly subjects related to software engineering, software architecture, software process models and software project management. But I was unable to proper All things together until very late.

    Still, I observe people struggling with these concepts, unable to proper things together. They are overwhelmed with the unstructured data available to them. One key to comprehending All this information is to involve yourself in a project. The only output for that project should live a software that your users can use.

    In this post, I will partake some basic object-oriented analysis and design principles, practices, and some of my experiences that you can spend in your next project.

    Introduction to Software evolution Process Models

    We All spend some process or steps to develop software. The simplest process model that I spend is just writing 6 lines on the back of a piece of paper and muster them feature list. Then, I open Visual Studio and start writing code. That's it. It's a process model I used during my college years.

    I wrote my first commercial software (which had 1 user, who abandoned it later) using Visual Basic 6.0 in my second year of college using this process model.

    There are many software evolution process models that I possess studied and applied throughout many projects.

    One process model (which is scolded by many authorities) is waterfall, which uses the process of gathering requirements, analysis, design, implementation, and testing.

    The problem with the waterfall process model is that you enact All the things in the identical exact sequence as written above. First, All the requirements are collected from the customers. A team analyzes requirements, then documents and prepares specifications for the design team. The design team then develops the design using the specification and hands over the design to the implementation team. The implementation team writes code with respect to the design. Finally, test team tests the software against the specifications.

    software process model

    Everything is done sequentially, and a lot of time is spent (months and even years) before the final product is shipped to the customer. Statistics disclose us that when a product is shipped to the customer using waterfall process models, a huge number of customers rejected it = because it did not meet their requirements.

    You may possess heard the phrase, “The customer is always right.” This truly applies to software development. If the customer does not enjoy the final product, then All the pains (months and years) is wasted.

    To cater to this problem, there is another philosophy — iterative and evolutionary development. Based on this philosophy, there are many software evolution process models. Some examples are Scrum, extreme programming(XP), and Rational Unified Process. They are the Agile evolution processes.

    The concept of iterative evolution is simple. Software evolution is organized into a train of petite projects called iterations. Each iteration has its analysis, design, implementation, and testing. At the sojourn of each iteration, the customer input is taken. If a customer did not agree, then the loss is minimal (usually weeks) as compared to waterfall process model.

    Now you understand the basic disagreement between iterative and sequential process models. Many organizations now spend iterative evolution process models, as the view is to minimize waste (months vs. weeks).

    Why I exigency to Understand Process Models

    For a long time, I believed that designing software was something enjoy that: I design everything in the ascend and then, using this design, start coding. Then, once it compiles, I handed over the running software to the sojourn user.

    It turns out that this is not the best approach. You will possess to change your design strategy, which evolves over time. Therefore, the incremental and evolutionary process model is faultfinding to understand. Flawless design is a myth. After subsequent iterations, one may realize that his or her initial design sucks.

    Another point is that one should not design for All the requirements at the beginning. originate a detailed design map for the iteration you're currently working on.

    Therefore, the key takeaway is that you should spend an iterative evolution process where the complete design is not done at the start of the project. Similarly, whatever you design will not faultless and will live changed or evolved during the lifecycle of the project.

    This ends the first article of this four-part series. In this article, I discussed the import of process models in object-oriented design. I besides mentioned the common misconception attached to UML.

    In Part 2, you will learn the following

  • Difference between process and methodology

  • 2 most faultfinding object-oriented design principles that everyone should know

  • 1 handicap of OOP that every developer would adore to possess in his or her code

  • To learn more about protest oriented programming visit here.

    Object-oriented design patterns in the kernel, Part 1 | killexams.com existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Benefits for LWN subscribers

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    June 1, 2011

    This article was contributed by Neil Brown

    Despite the fact that the Linux Kernel is mostly written in C, it makes broad spend of some techniques from the bailiwick of object-oriented programming. Developers wanting to spend these object-oriented techniques receive shrimp uphold or guidance from the language and so are left to fend for themselves. As is often the case, this is a double-edged sword. The developer has enough flexibility to enact really wintry things, and equally the flexibility to enact really slow things, and it isn't always transparent at first glance which is which, or more accurately: where on the spectrum a particular approach sits.

    Instead of looking to the language to provide guidance, a software engineer must peek to established rehearse to find out what works well and what is best avoided. Interpreting established rehearse is not always as facile as one might enjoy and the effort, once made, is worth preserving. To preserve that pains on your author's part, this article brings another installment in an occasional train on Linux Kernel Design Patterns and attempts to set out - with examples - the design patterns in the Linux Kernel which consequence an object-oriented style of programming.

    Rather than providing a brief introduction to the object-oriented style, tempting though that is, they will assume the reader has a basic information of objects, classes, methods, inheritance, and similar terms. For those as yet unfamiliar with these, there are plenty of resources to live establish elsewhere on the web.

    Over two weeks they will peek for patterns in just two areas: mode dispatch and data inheritance. Despite their patent simplicity they lead to some loaded veins for investigation. This first article will focus on mode dispatch.

    Method Dispatch

    The big variety of styles of inheritance and rules for its usage in languages today seems to insinuate that there is no uniform understanding of what "object-oriented" really means. The term is a bit enjoy "love": everyone thinks they know what it means but when you regain down to details people can find they possess very different ideas. While what it means to live "oriented" might not live clear, what they value by an "object" does seem to live uniformly agreed upon. It is simply an abstraction comprising both state and behavior. An protest is enjoy a record (Pascal) or struct (C), except that some of the names of members mention to functions which act on the other fields in the object. These duty members are sometimes referred to a "methods".

    The most obvious course to implement objects in C is to declare a "struct" where some fields are pointers to functions which purchase a pointer to the struct itself as their first argument. The calling convention for mode "foo" in protest "bar" would simply be: bar->foo(bar, ...args); While this pattern is used in the Linux kernel it is not the preeminent pattern so they will leave discussion of it until a shrimp later.

    As methods (unlike state) are not normally changed on a per-object basis, a more common and only slightly less obvious approach is to collect All the methods for a particular class of objects into a sever structure, sometimes known as a "virtual duty table" or vtable. The protest then has a unique pointer to this table rather than a sever pointer for each method, and consequently uses less memory.

    This then leads to their first pattern - a unadulterated vtable being a structure which contains only duty pointers where the first argument of each is a pointer to some other structure (the protest type) which itself contains a pointer to this vtable. Some simple examples of this in the Linux kernel are the file_lock_operations structure which contains two duty pointers each of which purchase a pointer to a struct file_lock, and the seq_operations vtable which contains four duty pointers which each operate on a struct seq_file. These two examples parade an obvious naming pattern - the structure holding a vtable is named for the structure holding the protest (possibly abbreviated) followed by "_operations". While this pattern is common it is by no means universal. Around the time of 2.6.39 there are approximately 30 "*_operations" structures along with well over 100 "*_ops" structures, most if not All of which are vtables of some sort. There are besides several structs such as struct mdk_personality which are essentially vtables but enact not possess particularly helpful names.

    Among these nearly 200 vtable structures there is plenty of variability and so plenty of scope to peek for challenging patterns. In particular they can peek for common variations from the "pure vtable" pattern described above and determine how these variations contribute to their understanding of protest spend in Linux.

    NULL duty pointers

    The first observation is that some duty pointers in some vtables are allowed to live NULL. Clearly trying to muster such a duty would live futile, so the code that calls into these methods generally contains an explicit test for the pointer being NULL. There are a few different reasons for these NULL pointers. Probably easiest to justify is the incremental evolution reason. Because of the course vtable structures are initialized, adding a current duty pointer to the structure definition causes All existing table declarations to initialise that pointer to NULL. Thus it is feasible to add a caller of the current mode before any instance supports that method, and possess it check for NULL and perform a default behavior. Then as incremental evolution continues those vtable instances which exigency it can regain non-default methods.

    A recent case is commit 77af1b2641faf4 adding set_voltage_time_sel() to struct regulator_ops which acts on struct regulator_dev. Subsequent commit 42ab616afe8844 defines that mode for a particular device. This is simply the most recent case of a very common theme.

    Another common intuition is that inescapable methods are not particularly meaningful in inescapable cases so the calling code simply tests for NULL and returns an commandeer mistake when found. There are multiple examples of this in the virtual filesystem (VFS) layer. For instance, the create() duty in inode_operations is only meaningful if the inode in question is a directory. So inode_operations structures for non-directories typically possess NULL for the create() duty (and many others) and the calling code in vfs_create() checks for NULL and returns -EACCES.

    A final intuition that vtables sometimes contain NULL is that an element of functionality might live being transitioned from one interface to another. A respectable case of this is the ioctl() operation in file_operations. In 2.6.11, a current method, unlocked_ioctl() was added which was called without the mammoth kernel lock held. In 2.6.36, when All drivers and filesystems had been converted to spend unlocked_ioctl(), the original ioctl() was finally removed. During this transition a file system would typically define only one of two, leaving the other defaulting to NULL.

    A slightly more subtle case of this is read() and aio_read(), besides in file_operations, and the corresponding write() and aio_write(). aio_read() was introduced to uphold asynchronous IO, and if it is provided the regular synchronous read() is not needed (it is effected using do_sync_read() which calls the aio_read() method). In this case there appears to live no objective of ever removing read() - it will remain for cases where async IO is not material such as special filesystems enjoy procfs and sysfs. So it is soundless the case that only one of each pair exigency live defined by a filesystem, but it is not simply a transition, it is a long-term state.

    Though there seem to live several different reasons for a NULL duty pointer, almost every case is an case of one simple pattern - that of providing a default implementation for the method. In the "incremental development" examples and the non-meaningful mode case, this is fairly straightforward. e.g. the default for inode->create() is simply to return an error. In the interface transition case it is only slightly less obvious. The default for unlocked_ioctl() would live to purchase the kernel lock and then muster the ioctl() method. The default for read() is exactly do_sync_read() and some filesystems such as ext3 actually provide this value explicitly rather than using "NULL" to witness a default.

    With that in mind, a shrimp reflection suggests that if the existent goal is to provide a default, then maybe the best approach would live to explicitly give a default rather than using the circuitous route of using a default of NULL and interpreting it specially.

    While NULL is certainly the easiest value to provide as a default - as the C yardstick assures us that uninitialized members of a structure enact regain set to NULL - it is not very much harder to set a more meaningful default. I am indebted to LWN reader wahern for the observation that C99 allows fields in a structure to live initialized multiple times with only the final value taking consequence and that this allows facile setting of default values such as by following the simple model:

    #define FOO_DEFAULTS .bar = default_bar, .baz = default_baz struct foo_operations my_foo = { FOO_DEFAULTS, .bar = my_bar, };

    This will declare my_foo with a predefined default value for baz and a localized value for bar. Thus for the petite cost of defining a few "default" functions and including a "_DEFAULTS" entry to each declaration, the default value for any bailiwick can easily live chosen when the bailiwick is first created, and automatically included in every spend of the structure.

    Not only are meaningful defaults facile to implement, they can lead to a more efficient implementation. In those cases where the duty pointer actually is NULL it is probably faster to test and offshoot rather than to originate an circuitous duty call. However the NULL case is very often the exception rather than the rule, and optimizing for an exception is not orthodox practice. In the more common case when the duty pointer is not NULL, the test for NULL is simply a waste of code space and a waste of execution time. If they disallow NULLs they can originate All muster sites a shrimp bit smaller and simpler.

    In general, any testing performed by the caller before calling a mode can live seen as an instance of the "mid-layer mistake" discussed in a previous article. It shows that the mid-layer is making assumptions about the deportment of the lower plane driver rather than simply giving the driver license to behave in whatever course is most suitable. This may not always live an expensive mistake, but it is soundless best avoided where possible. Nevertheless there is a transparent pattern in the Linux kernel that pointers in vtables can sometimes live NULLable, typically though not always to enable a transition, and the muster sites should in these cases test for NULL before proceeding with the call.

    The observant reader will possess noticed a cavity in the above logic denouncing the spend NULL pointers for defaults. In the case where the default is the common case and where performance is paramount, the reasoning does not hold and a NULL pointer could well live justified. Naturally the Linux kernel provides an case of such a case for their examination.

    One of the data structures used by the VFS for caching filesystem information is the "dentry". A "dentry" represents a appellation in the filesystem, and so each "dentry" has a parent, being the directory containing it, and an "inode" representing the named file. The dentry is sever from the inode because a unique file can possess multiple names (so an "inode" can possess multiple "dentry"s). There is a dentry_operations vtable with a number of operations including, for example, "d_compare" which will compare two names and "d_hash" which will generate a hash for the appellation to pilot the storage of the "dentry" in a hash table. Most filesystems enact not exigency this flexibility. They deal names as uninterpreted strings of bytes so the default compare and hash functions are the common case. A few filesystems define these to handle case-insensitive names but that is not the norm.

    Further, filename lookup is a common operation in Linux and so optimizing it is a priority. Thus these two operations appear to live respectable candidates where a test for NULL and an inlined default operation might live appropriate. What they find though is that when such an optimization is warranted it is not by itself enough. The code that calls d_compare() and d_hash() (and a brace of other dentry operations) does not test these functions for NULL directly. Rather they require that a few flag bits (DCACHE_OP_HASH, DCACHE_OP_COMPARE) in the "dentry" are set up to witness whether the common default should live used, or whether the duty should live called. As the flag bailiwick is likely to live in cache anyway, and the dentry_operations structure will often live not needed at all, this avoids a remembrance fetch in a red path.

    So they find that the one case where using a NULL duty pointer to witness a default could live justified, it is not actually used; instead, a different, more efficient, mechanism is used to witness that the default mode is requested.

    Members other than duty pointers

    While most vtable-like structures in the kernel contain exclusively duty pointers, there are a significant minority that possess non-function-pointer fields. Many of these appear on the surface quite whimsical and a few closer inspections insinuate that some of them result of impoverished design or bit-rot and their removal would only better the code.

    There is one exception to the "functions only" pattern that occurs repeatedly and provides existent value, and so is worth exploring. This pattern is seen in its most common shape in struct mdk_personality which provides operations for a particular software RAID level. In particular this structure contains an "owner", a "name", and a "list". The "owner" is the module that provides the implementation. The "name" is a simple identifier: some vtables possess string names, some possess numeric names, and it is often called something different enjoy "version", "family", "drvname", or "level". But conceptually it is soundless a name. In the present case there are two names, a string and a numeric "level".

    The "list", while Part of the identical functionality, is less common. The mdk_personality structure has a struct list_head, as does struct ts_ops. struct file_system_type has a simple pointer to the next struct file_system_type. The underlying view here is that for any particular implementation of an interface (or "final" definition of a class) to live usable, it must live registered in some course so that it can live found. Further, once it has been establish it must live feasible to ensure that the module holding the implementation is not removed while it is in use.

    There seem to live nearly as many styles of registration against an interface in Linux as there are interfaces to register against, so finding stout patterns there would live a difficult task. However it is fairly common for a "vtable" to live treated as the primary handle on a particular implementation of an interface and to possess an "owner" pointer which can live used to regain a reference on the module which provides the implementation.

    So the pattern they find here is that a structure of duty pointers used as a "vtable" for protest mode dispatch should normally contain only duty pointers. Exceptions require transparent justification. A common exception allows a module pointer and feasible other fields such as a appellation and a list pointer. These fields are used to uphold the registration protocol for the particular interface. When there is no list pointer it is very likely that the entire vtable will live treated as read-only. In this case the vtable will often live declared as a const structure and so could even live stored in read-only memory.

    Combining Methods for different objects

    A final common deviation from the "pure vtable" pattern that they observe in the Linux kernel occurs when the first argument to the duty is not always the identical protest type. In a unadulterated vtable which is referenced by a pointer in a particular data structure, the first argument of each duty is exactly that data structure. What intuition could there live for deviating from that pattern? It turns out that there are few, some more challenging than others.

    The simplest and least challenging explanation is that, for no patent reason, the target data structure is listed elsewhere in the argument list. For case All functions in struct fb_ops purchase a struct fb_info. While in 18 cases that structure is the first argument, in five cases it is the last. There is nothing obviously wrong with this selection and it is unlikely to muddle developers. It is only a problem for data miners enjoy your author who exigency to filter it out as an impertinent pattern.

    A slight deviation on this pattern is seen in struct rfkill_ops where two functions purchase a struct rkfill but the third - set_block() - takes a void *data. Further investigation shows that this opaque data is exactly that which is stored in rfkill->data, so set_block() could easily live defined to purchase a struct rfkill and simply to succeed the ->data link itself. This deviation is sufficiently non-obvious that it could conceivably muddle developers as well as data miners and so should live avoided.

    The next deviation in seen for case in platform_suspend_ops, oprofile_operations, security_operations and a few others. These purchase an odd assortment of arguments with no obvious pattern. However these are really very different sorts of vtable structures in that the protest they belong to are singletons. There is only one vigorous platform, only one profiler, only one security policy. Thus the "object" on which these operations act is Part of the global state and so does not exigency to live included in the arguments of any functions.

    Having filtered these two patterns out as not being very challenging they are left with two that enact serve to disclose us something about protest spend in the kernel.

    quota_format_ops and export_operations are two different operations structures that operate on a variety of different data structures. In each case the patent primary protest (e.g. a struct super_block or a struct dentry) already has a vtable structure dedicated to it (such as super_operations or dentry_operations) and these current structures add current operations. In each case the current operations shape a cohesive unit providing a related set of functionality - whether supporting disk quotas or NFS export. They don't All act on the identical protest simply because the functionality in question depends on a variety of objects.

    The best term from the language of object-oriented programming for this is probably the "mixin". Though the proper may not live faultless - depending on what your exact understanding of mixin is - the view of bringing in a collection of functionality without using strict hierarchical inheritance is very close to the purpose of quota_format_ops and export_operations.

    Once they know to live on the lookout for mixins enjoy these they can find quite a few more examples. The pattern to live alert for is not the one that led us here - an operations structure that operates on a variety of different objects - but rather the one they establish where the functions in an "operations" structure operate on objects that already possess their own "operations" structure. When an protest has a big number of operations that are material and these operations naturally group into subsets, it makes a lot of sense to divide them into sever vtable-like structures. There are several examples of this in the networking code where for instance both tcp_congestion_ops and inet_connection_sock_af_ops operate (primarily) on a struct sock, which itself has already got a petite set of dedicated operations.

    So the pattern of a "mixin" - at least as defined as a set of operations which apply to one or more objects without being the primary operations for those objects - is a pattern that is often establish in the kernel and appears to live quite valuable in allowing better modularization of code.

    The final pattern which explains non-uniform duty targets is probably the most interesting, particularly in its contrast to the obvious application of object-oriented programming style. Examples of this pattern abound with ata_port_operations, tty_operations, nfs_rpc_ops and atmdev_ops All appearing as useful examples. However they will focus primarily on some examples from the filesystem layer, particularly super_operations and inode_operations.

    There is a stout hierarchy of objects in the implementation of a filesystem where the filesystem - represented by a "super_block" - has a number of files (struct inode) which may possess a number of names or links (struct dentry). Further each file might store data in the page cache (struct address_space) which comprises a number of individual pages (struct page). There is a sense in which All of these different objects belong to the filesystem as a whole. If a page needs to live loaded with data from a file, the filesystem knows how to enact that, and it is probably the identical mechanism for every page in every file. Where it isn't always the same, the filesystem knows that too. So they could conceivably store every operation on every one of these objects in the struct super_block, as it represents the filesystem and could know what to enact in each case.

    In rehearse that extreme is not really helpful. It is quite likely that while there are similarities between the storage of a regular file and a directory, there are besides faultfinding differences and being able to encode those differences in sever vtables can live helpful. Sometimes petite symbolic links are stored directly in the inode while larger links are stored enjoy the contents of a regular file. Having different readlink() operations for the two cases can originate the code a lot more readable.

    While the extreme of every operation attached to the one central structure is not ideal, it is equally equable that the opposite extreme is not ideal either. The struct page in Linux does not possess a vtable pointer at All - in Part because they want to preserve the structure as petite as feasible because it is so populous. Rather the address_space_operations structure contains the operations that act on a page. Similarly the super_operations structure contains some operations that apply to inodes, and inode_operations contains some operations that apply to dentries.

    It is clearly feasible to possess operations structures attached to a parent of the target protest - providing the target holds a reference to the parent, which it normally does - though it is not quite so transparent that it is always beneficial. In the case of struct page which avoids having a vtable pointer altogether the profit is clear. In the case of struct inode which has its own vtable pointer, the profit of having some operations (such as destroy_inode() or write_inode()) attached to the super_block is less clear.

    As there are several vtable structures where any given duty pointer could live stored, the actual selection is in many cases shrimp more than historical accident. Certainly the proliferation of struct dentry operations in inode_operations seems to live largely due to the fact that some of them used to act directly on the inode, but changes in the VFS eventually required this to change. For case in 2.1.78-pre1, each of link(), readlink(), followlink() (and some others which are now defunct) were changed from taking a struct inode to purchase a struct dentry instead. This set the scene for "dentry" operations to live in inode_operations, so when setattr and getattr were added for 2.3.48, it probably seemed completely natural to comprise them in inode_operations despite the fact that they acted primarily on a dentry.

    Possibly they could simplify things by getting rid of dentry_operations altogether. Some operations that act on dentries are already in inode_operations and super_operations - why not meander them All there? While dentries are not as populous as struct page there are soundless a lot of them and removing the "d_op" bailiwick could save 5% of the remembrance used by that structure (on x86-64).

    With two exceptions, every vigorous filesystem only has a unique dentry operations structure in effect. Some filesystem implementations enjoy "vfat" define two - e.g. one with case-sensitive matching and one with case-insensitive matching - but there is only one vigorous per super-block. So it would seem that the operations in dentry_operations could live moved to super_operations, or at least accessed through "s_d_op". The two exceptions are ceph and procfs. These filesystems spend different d_revalidate() operations in different parts of the filesystem and - in the case of procfs - different d_release() operations. The necessary distinctions could easily live made in per-superblock versions of these operations. enact these cases justify the 5% space cost? Arguably not.

    Directly embedded duty pointers

    Finally it is commandeer to reflect on the alternate pattern mentioned at the start, where duty pointers are stored directly in the protest rather than in a sever vtable structure. This pattern can live seen in struct request_queue which has nine duty pointers, struct efi which has ten duty pointers, and struct sock which has six duty pointers.

    The cost of embedded pointers is obviously space. When vtables are used, there is only one copy of the vtable and multiple copies of an protest (in most cases) so if more than one duty pointer is needed, a vtable would save space. The cost of a vtable is an extra remembrance reference, though cache might reduce much of this cost in some cases. A vtable besides has a cost of flexibility. When each protest needs exactly the identical set of operations a vtable is good, but if there is a exigency to individually tailor some of the operations for each object, then embedded duty pointer can provide that flexibility. This is illustrated quite nicely by the remark with "zoom_video" in struct pcmcia_socket

    /* Zoom video behaviour is so chip specific its not worth adding this to _ops */

    So where objects are not very populous, where the list of duty pointers is small, and where multiple mixins are needed, embedded duty pointers are used instead of a sever vtable.

    Method Dispatch Summary

    If they combine All the pattern elements that they possess establish in Linux they find that:

    Method pointers that operate on a particular sort of protest are normally collected in a vtable associated directly with that object, though they can besides appear:

  • In a mixin vtable that collects related functionality which may live selectable independently of the base sort of the object.
  • In the vtable for a "parent" protest when doing so avoids the exigency for a vtable pointer in a populous object
  • Directly in the protest when there are few mode pointers, or they exigency to live individually tailored to the particular object.
  • These vtables rarely contain anything other than duty pointers, though fields needed to register the protest class can live appropriate. Allowing these duty pointers to live NULL is a common but not necessarily ideal technique for handling defaults.

    So in exploring the Linux Kernel code they possess establish that even though it is not written in an object-oriented language, it certainly contains objects, classes (represented as vtables), and even mixins. It besides contains concepts not normally establish in object-oriented languages such as delegating protest methods to a "parent" object.

    Hopefully understanding these different patterns and the reasons for choosing between them can lead to more uniform application of the patterns across the kernel, and hence originate it easier for a newcomer to understand which pattern is being followed. In the second Part of their examination of protest oriented patterns they will explore the various ways that data inheritance is achieved in the Linux kernel and contend the strengths and weaknesses of each approach so as to observe where each is most appropriate.

    (Log in to post comments)

    Java and Object-Oriented Programming | killexams.com existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

    This chapter is from the book 

    Many seasoned Java developers will scoff at the fact that this section even exists in this book. It is here for two very faultfinding reasons. The first is that I continually rush across Java applications built with a procedural mind-set. The fact that you know Java doesn't value that you possess the skill to transform that information into well-designed object-oriented systems. As both an instructor and consultant, I observe many data-processing shops dispatch COBOL and/or Visual Basic developers to a three-day class on UML and a five-day class on Java and anticipate miracles. Case in point: I was recently asked to review a Java application to assess its design architecture and establish that it had only two classes—SystemController and ScreenController—which contained over 70,000 lines of Java code.

    The second intuition for the accent on how the language maps to object-oriented principles is that people enjoy language comparisons and how they stack up to their counterparts. To appease those that live and die by language comparisons, let's dwelling Java under the scrutiny of what constitutes an object-oriented language.

    No definitive definition of what makes a language object-oriented is globally accepted. However, a common set of criteria I personally find useful is that the language must uphold the following:

  • Classes
  • Complex types (Java reference types)
  • Message passing
  • Encapsulation
  • Inheritance
  • Polymorphism
  • These are discussed in the next subsections.

    Java and Classes

    Java allows classes to live defined. There are no stray functions floating around in Java. A class is a static template that contains the defined structure (attributes) and deportment (operations) of a real-world entity in the application domain. At runtime, the class is instantiated, or brought to life, as an protest born in the image of that class. In my seminars, when several folks current to the protest world are in attendance, I often spend the analogy of a cookie cutter. The cookie cutter is merely the template used to stamp out what will become individually decorated and unique cookies. The cookie cutter is the class; the unique blue, green, and yellow gingerbread man is the protest (which I faith supports a bite operation).

    Java exposes the class to potential outside users through its public interface. A public interface consists of the signatures of the public operations supported by the class. A signature is the operation appellation and its input parameter types (the return type, if any, is not Part of the operation's signature).

    Good programming rehearse encourages developers to declare All attributes as private and allow access to them only via operations. As with most other languages, however, this is not enforced in Java. device 2-1 outlines the concept of a class and its interface.

    FIGURE 2-1 Public interface of a class

    The device uses a common eggshell metaphor to narrate the concept of the class's interface, as well as encapsulation. The internal details of the class are hidden from the outside via a well-defined interface. In this case, only four operations are exposed in the classes interface (Operation_A, B, C, and D). The other attributes and operations are protected from the outside world. Actually, to the outside world, it's as if they don't even exist.

    Suppose you want to create an Order class in Java that has three attributes—orderNumber, orderDate, and orderTotal—and two operations—calcTotalValue() and getInfo(). The class definition could peek enjoy this:

    /** * Listing 1 * This is the Order class for the Java/UML book */ package com.jacksonreed; import java.util.*; public class Order { private Date orderDate; private long orderNumber; private long orderTotal; public Order() { } public boolean getInfo() { return true; } public long calcTotalValue() { return 0; } public Date getOrderDate() { return orderDate; } public void setOrderDate(Date aOrderDate) { orderDate = aOrderDate; } public long getOrderNumber() { return orderNumber; } public void setOrderNumber(long aOrderNumber) { orderNumber = aOrderNumber; } public long getOrderTotal() { return orderTotal; } public void setOrderTotal(long aOrderTotal) { orderTotal = aOrderTotal; } public static void main(String[] args) { Order order = current Order(); System.out.println("instantiated Order"); System.out.println(order.getClass().getName()); System.out.println(order.calcTotalValue()); try { Thread.currentThread().sleep(5*1000); } catch(InterruptedException e) {} } }

    A few things are notable about the first bit of Java code presented in this book. Notice that each of the three attributes has a regain and a set operation to allow for the retrieval and setting of the Order object's properties. Although doing so is not required, it is common rehearse to provide these accessor-type operations for All attributes defined in a class. In addition, if the Order class ever wanted to live a JavaBean, it would possess to possess "getters and setters" defined in this way.

    Some of the mode code in the main() operation does a few things of note. Of interest is that a try cloak exists at the sojourn of the operation that puts the current thread to sleep for a bit. This is to allow the console parade to freeze so that you can observe the results.

    If you sort in this class and then compile it and execute it in your favorite evolution implement or from the command prompt with

    javac order.java //* to compile it java order //* to rush it

    you should regain results that peek enjoy this:

    instantiated Order com.jacksonreed.Order 0


    Going forward, I promise you will observe no code samples with class, operation, or credit names of foo, bar, or foobar.

    More on Java and Classes

    A class can besides possess what are called class-level operations and attributes. Java supports these with the static keyword. This keyword would Go perquisite after the visibility (public, private, protected) component of the operation or attribute. Static operations and attributes are needed to invoke either a service of the class before any existent instances of that class are instantiated or a service that doesn't directly apply to any of the instances. The classic case of a static operation is the Java constructor. The constructor is what is called when an protest is created with the current keyword. Perhaps a more business-focused case is an operation that retrieves a list of Customer instances based on particular search criteria.

    A class-level credit can live used to store information that All instances of that class may access. This credit might be, for example, a matter of the number of objects currently instantiated or a property about Customer that All instances might exigency to reference.

    Java and intricate Types (Java Reference Types)

    A intricate type, which in Java is called a reference type, allows variables typed as something other than primitive types (e.g., int and boolean) to live declared. In Java, these are called reference types. In object-oriented systems, variables that are "of" a particular class, such as Order, Customer, or Invoice, must live defined. Taken a step further, Order could consist of other class instances, such as OrderHeader and OrderLine.

    In Java, you can define different variables that are references to runtime objects of a particular class type:

    Public Order myOrder; Public Customer myCustomer; Public Invoice myInvoice;

    Such variables can then live used to store actual protest instances and subsequently to serve as recipients of messages sent by other objects. In the previous code fragment, the variable myOrder is an instance of Order. After the myOrder protest is created, a message can live sent to it and myOrder will respond, provided that the operation is supported by myOrder's interface.

    Java and Message Passing

    Central to any object-oriented language is the skill to pass messages between objects. In later chapters you will observe that drudgery is done in a system only by objects that collaborate (by sending messages) to accomplish a goal (which is specified in a use-case) of the system.

    Java doesn't allow stray functions floating around that are not attached to a class. In fact, Java demands this. Unfortunately, as my previous sage suggested, just saw that a language requires everything to live packaged in classes doesn't value that the class design will live robust, let alone correct.

    Java supports message passing, which is central to the spend of Java's object-oriented features. The format closely resembles the syntax of other languages, such as C++ and Visual Basic. In the following code fragment, assume that a variable called myCustomer, of sort Customer, is defined and that an operation called calcTotalValue() is defined for Customer. Then the calcTotalValue() message being sent to the myCustomer protest in Java would peek enjoy this:


    Many developers feel that, in any other structured language, this is just a fancy course of calling a procedure. Calling a procedure and sending a message are similar in that, once invoked, both a procedure and a message implement a set of well-defined steps. However, a message differs in two ways:

  • There is a designated receiver, the object. Procedures possess no designated receiver.

  • The interpretation of the message—that is, the how-to code (called the method) used to respond to the message—can vary with different receivers. This point will become more faultfinding later in the chapter, when polymorphism is reviewed.

  • The concepts presented in this book rely heavily on classes and the messaging that takes dwelling between their instances, or objects.

    Java and Encapsulation

    Recall that a class exposes itself to the outside world via its public interface and that this should live done through exposure to operations only, and not attributes. Java supports encapsulation via its skill to declare both attributes and operations as public, private, or protected. In UML this is called visibility.

    Using the code from the previous Order example, suppose you want to set the value of the orderDate attribute. In this case, you should enact so with an operation. An operation that gets or sets values is usually called a getter or a setter, respectively, and collectively such operations are called accessors. The local copy of the order date, orderDate, is declared private. (Actually, All attributes of a class should live declared private or protected, so that they are accessible only via operations exposed as public to the outside world.)

    Encapsulation provides some powerful capabilities. To the outside world, the design can veil how it derives its credit values. If the orderTotal credit is stored in the Order object, the corresponding regain operation defined previously looks enjoy this:

    public long getOrderTotal() { return orderTotal; }

    This snippet of code would live invoked if the following code were executed by an interested client:

    private long localTotal; private Order localOrder; localOrder = current Order(); localTotal = localOrder.getOrderTotal()

    However, suppose the credit orderTotal isn't kept as a local value of the Order class, but rather is derived via another mechanism (perhaps messaging to its OrderLine objects). If Order contains OrderLine objects (declared as a Vector or ArrayList of OrderLine objects called myOrderLines) and OrderLine knows how to obtain its line totals via the message getOrderLineTotal(), then the corresponding regain operation for orderTotal within Order will peek enjoy this:

    public long getOrderTotal() { long totalAmount=0; for (int i=0; i < myOrderLines.length; i++) { totalAmount = totalAmount + myOrderLines[i].getOrderLineTotal(); } return totalAmount; }

    This code cycles through the myOrderLines collection, which contains All the Orderline objects related to the Order object, sending the getOrderLineTotal() message to each of Order's OrderLine objects. The getOrderTotal() operation will live invoked if the following code is executed by an interested client:

    long localTotal; Order myOrder; myOrder = current Order(); localTotal = localOrder.getOrderTotal()

    Notice that the "client" code didn't change. To the outside world, the class soundless has an orderTotal attribute. However, you possess hidden, or encapsulated, just how the value was obtained. This encapsulation allows the class's interface to remain the identical (hey, I possess an orderTotal that you can examine me about), while the class retains the flexibility to change its implementation in the future (sorry, how they enact traffic has changed and now they must derive orderTotal enjoy this). This benevolent of resiliency is one of the compelling traffic reasons to spend an object-oriented programming language in general.

    Java and Inheritance

    The inclusion of inheritance is often the most cited intuition for granting a language object-oriented status. There are two kinds of inheritance: interface and implementation. As they shall see, Java is one of the few languages that makes a transparent distinction between the two.

    Interface inheritance (Figure 2-2) declares that a class that is inheriting an interface will live amenable for implementing All of the mode code of each operation defined in that interface. Only the signatures of the interface are inherited; there is no mode or how-to code.

    FIGURE 2-2 Interface inheritance

    Implementation inheritance (Figure 2-3) declares that a class that is inheriting an interface may, at its option, spend the mode code implementation already established for the interface. Alternatively, it may elect to implement its own version of the interface. In addition, the class inheriting the interface may extend that interface by adding its own operations and attributes.

    FIGURE 2-3 Implementation inheritance

    Each sort of inheritance should live scrutinized and used in the commandeer setting. Interface inheritance is best used under the following conditions:

  • The base class presents a generic facility, such as a table lookup, or a derivation of system-specific information, such as operating-system semantics or unique algorithms.

  • The number of operations is small.

  • The base class has few, if any, attributes.

  • Classes realizing or implementing the interface are diverse, with shrimp or no common code.

  • Implementation inheritance is best used under the following conditions:

  • The class in question is a domain class that is of primary interest to the application (i.e., not a utility or controller class).

  • The implementation is complex, with a big number of operations.

  • Many attributes and operations are common across specialized implementations of the base class.

  • Some practitioners contend that implementation inheritance leads to a symptom called the brittle base class problem. Chiefly, this term refers to the fact that over time, what were once common code and attributes in the superclass may not sojourn common as the traffic evolves. The result is that many, if not all, of the subclasses, override the deportment of the superclass. Worse yet, the subclasses may find themselves overriding the superclass, doing their own work, and then invoking the identical operation again on the superclass. These practitioners espouse the idea of using only interface inheritance. Particularly with the advent of Java and its raising of the interface to a first-class type, the concept and usage of interface-based programming possess gained tremendous momentum.

    As this book evolves, keeping in repartee the pointers mentioned here when deciding between the two types of inheritance will live helpful. Examples of both constructs will live presented in the theme project that extends throughout this book.

    Implementation Inheritance

    Java supports implementation inheritance with the extends keyword. A class wanting to purchase handicap of implementation inheritance simply adds an extendsClassName statement to its class definition. To continue the previous example, suppose you possess two different types of orders, both warranting their own subclasses: Commercial and Retail. You would soundless possess an Order class (which isn't instantiated directly and which is called abstract). The previous fragment showed the code for the Order class. Following is the code for the Commercial class.

    package com.jacksonreed; public class Commercial extends Order { public Commercial() { } /* Unique Commercial code goes here */ }

    Implementation inheritance allows the Commercial class to utilize All attributes and operations defined in Order. This will live done automatically by the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) in conjunction with the language environment. In addition, implementation inheritance has the skill to override and/or extend any of Order's behavior. Commercial may besides add completely current deportment if it so chooses.

    Interface Inheritance

    Java supports interface inheritance with the implements keyword. A class wanting to realize a given interface (actually being amenable for the mode code) simply adds an implements InterfaceName statement. However, unlike extension of one class by another class, implementation of an interface by a class requires that the interface live specifically defined as an interface beforehand.

    Looking again at the previous case with Order, let's assume that this system will contain many classes—some built in this release, and some built in future releases—that exigency the skill to cost themselves. remember from earlier in this chapter that one of the indicators of using interface inheritance is the situation in which there is shrimp or no common code but the functional intent of the classes is the same. This pricing functionality includes three services: the abilities to cipher tax, to cipher an extended price, and to cipher a total price. Let's muster the operations for these services calcExtendedPrice(), calcTax(), and calcTotalPrice(), respectively, and assign them to a Java interface called IPrice. Sometimes interface names are prefixed with the note I to distinguish them from other classes:

    package com.jacksonreed; interface IPrice { long calcExtendedPrice(); long calcTax(); long calcTotalPrice(); }

    Notice that the interface contains only operation signatures; it has no implementation code. It is up to other classes to implement the actual deportment of the operations. For the Order class to implement, or realize, the IPrice interface, it must comprise the implements keyword followed by the interface name:

    public class Order implements IPrice { }

    If you try to implement an interface without providing implementations for All of its operations, your class will not compile. Even if you don't want to implement any mode code for some of the operations, you soundless must possess the operations defined in your class.

    One very powerful aspect of interface inheritance is that a class can implement many interfaces at the identical time. For example, Order could implement the IPrice interface and perhaps a search interface called ISearch. However, a Java class may extend from only one other class.

    Java and Polymorphism

    Polymorphism is one of those $50 words that dazzles the uninformed and sounds really impressive. In fact, polymorphism is one of the most powerful features of any object-oriented language.

    Roget's II: The current Thesaurus cross-references the term polymorphism to the main entry of variety. That will enact for starters. Variety is the key to polymorphism. The Latin root for polymorphism means simply "many forms." Polymorphism applies to operations in the object-oriented context. So by combining these two thoughts, you could deliver that operations are polymorphic if they are identical (not just in appellation but besides in signatures) but offer variety in their implementations.

    Polymorphism is the skill of two different classes each to possess an operation that has the identical signature, while having two very different forms of mode code for the operation. Note that to purchase handicap of polymorphism, either an interface inheritance or an implementation inheritance relationship must live involved.

    In languages such as COBOL and FORTRAN, defining a routine to have the identical appellation as another routine will occasions a compile error. In object-oriented languages such as Java and C++, several classes might possess an operation with the identical signature. Such duplication is in fact encouraged because of the power and flexibility it brings to the design.

    As mentioned previously, the implements and extends keywords let the application purchase handicap of polymorphism. As they shall see, the sample project presented later in this book is an order system for a company called Remulak Productions. Remulak sells musical equipment, as well as other types of products. There will live a Product class, as well as Guitar, SheetMusic, and Supplies classes.

    Suppose, then, that differences exist in the fundamental algorithms used to determine the best time to reorder each sort of product (called the economic order quantity, or EOQ). I don't want to let too much out of the bag at this point, but there will live an implementation inheritance relationship created with Product as the forefather class (or superclass) and the other three classes as its descendants (or subclasses). The scenario that follows uses implementation inheritance with a polymorphic example. Note that interface inheritance would relent the identical benefits and live implemented in the identical fashion.

    To facilitate extensibility and live able to add current products in the future in a sort of plug-and-play fashion, they can originate calcEOQ() polymorphic. To enact this in Java, Product would define calcEOQ() as abstract, thereby informing any inheriting subclass that it must provide the implementation. A key concept behind polymorphism is this: A class implementing an interface or inheriting from an forefather class can live treated as an instance of that forefather class. In the case of a Java interface, the interface itself is a valid type.

    For example, assume that a collection of Product objects is defined as a property of the Inventory class. Inventory will uphold an operation, getAverageEOQ(), that needs to cipher the middling economic order quantity for All products the company sells. To enact this requires that they iterate over the collection of Product objects called myProducts to regain each object's unique economic order quantity individually, with the goal of getting an average:

    public long getAverageEOQ() { long totalAmount=0; for (int i=0; i < myProducts.length; i++) { totalAmount = totalAmount + myProducts[i].calcEOQ(); } return totalAmount / myProducts.length; }

    But wait! First of all, how can Inventory possess a collection of Product objects when the Product class is abstract (no instances were ever created on their own)? remember the maxim from earlier: Any class implementing an interface or extending from an forefather class can live treated as an instance of that interface or extended class. A Guitar "is a" Product, SheetMusic "is a" Product, and Supplies "is a" Product. So anywhere you reference Guitar, SheetMusic, or Supplies, you can substitute Product.

    Resident in the array myProducts within the Inventory class are individual concrete Guitar, SheetMusic, and Supplies objects. Java figures out dynamically which protest should regain its own unique calcEOQ() message. The beauty of this construct is that later, if you add a current sort of Product—say, Organ—it will live totally transparent to the Inventory class. That class will soundless possess a collection of Product types, but it will possess four different ones instead of three, each of which will possess its own unique implementation of the calcEOQ() operation.

    This is polymorphism at its best. At runtime, the class related to the protest in question will live identified and the rectify "variety" of the operation will live invoked. Polymorphism provides powerful extensibility features to the application by letting future unknown classes implement a predictable and well-conceived interface without affecting how other classes deal with that interface.

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