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Test Code : 000-633
Test denomination : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - piece 1
Vendor denomination : IBM
: 105 real Questions

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Object Oriented Analysis and Design - piece 1 exam

Object-oriented design patterns within the kernel, piece 1 | 000-633 real Questions and VCE drill Test

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June 1, 2011

this text became contributed by Neil Brown

however that the Linux Kernel is generally written in C, it makes wide exhaust of some thoughts from the realm of object-oriented programming. developers desperate to exhaust these object-oriented options receive slight cheer or assistance from the language and so are left to fend for themselves. As is commonly the case, here's a double-edged sword. The developer has ample flexibility to finish in fact frosty issues, and equally the flexibility to finish basically tiresome issues, and it is rarely at All times transparent at first glimpse which is which, or greater precisely: where on the spectrum a specific passage sits.

instead of trying to the language to supply assistance, a software engineer ought to seem to relative result to determine what works neatly and what's most efficient avoided. interpreting relative drill isn't All the time as handy as one could like and the effort, as soon as made, is worth protecting. To preserve that endeavor in your creator's half, this text brings yet another installment in an occasional collection on Linux Kernel Design Patterns and attempts to set out - with examples - the design patterns within the Linux Kernel which repercussion an object-oriented style of programming.

as opposed to providing a brief introduction to the article-oriented fashion, tempting though it really is, they are able to assume the reader has a simple advantage of objects, courses, methods, inheritance, and identical phrases. For those as yet unfamiliar with these, there are loads of resources to exist discovered somewhere else on the web.

Over two weeks they can search patterns in just two areas: formula dispatch and information inheritance. despite their obvious simplicity they lead to some moneyed veins for investigation. this primary article will focal point on formulation dispatch.

formulation Dispatch

The gigantic variety of styles of inheritance and guidelines for its usage in languages today looks to intimate that there is not any uniform realizing of what "object-oriented" definitely potential. The term is a bit like "love": All and sundry thinks they know what it potential however if you procure down to particulars individuals can determine they believe very several ideas. while what it potential to exist "oriented" might no longer exist clear, what they intimate with the aid of an "object" does appear to exist uniformly agreed upon. it's conveniently an abstraction comprising both situation and habits. An object is like a record (Pascal) or struct (C), apart from that some of the names of contributors contend with features which act on the different fields within the object. These duty participants are every now and then talked about a "strategies".

the most evident option to invoke objects in C is to declare a "struct" the residence some fields are tips to services which hold a pointer to the struct itself as their first argument. The calling conference for system "foo" in object "bar" would readily be: bar->foo(bar, ...args); while this pattern is used in the Linux kernel it is not the preponderant pattern so they can depart discussion of it except a slight later.

As strategies (in contrast to state) aren't at All times modified on a per-object foundation, a greater typical and simplest just a slight less obtrusive approach is to bring together All the methods for a specific classification of objects into a divorce structure, occasionally known as a "virtual characteristic table" or vtable. the article then has a sole pointer to this desk in residence of a divorce pointer for every system, and consequently makes exhaust of less memory.

This then ends up in their first pattern - a sheer vtable being a constitution which contains best feature pointers the residence the primary dispute of each is a pointer to any other structure (the article type) which itself carries a pointer to this vtable. Some essential examples of this within the Linux kernel are the file_lock_operations constitution which includes two duty pointers each of which hold a pointer to a struct file_lock, and the seq_operations vtable which includes 4 duty pointers which each operate on a struct seq_file. These two examples betray an obtrusive naming pattern - the constitution protecting a vtable is named for the constitution maintaining the article (probably abbreviated) followed by "_operations". whereas this sample is ordinary it is by using no capability prevalent. around the time of two.6.39 there are about 30 "*_operations" structures along with well over 100 "*_ops" constructions, most if no longer All of that are vtables of some sort. There are additionally several structs akin to struct mdk_personality which are well-nigh vtables but shouldn't believe exceptionally useful names.

amongst these basically 200 vtable buildings there's lots of variability and so a lot of scope to search for exciting patterns. In specific they are able to glimpse for typical diversifications from the "pure vtable" pattern described above and investigate how these variations submit a contribution to their realizing of object exhaust in Linux.

NULL feature pointers

the primary observation is that some characteristic pointers in some vtables are allowed to exist NULL. clearly attempting to muster any such characteristic can exist futile, so the code that calls into these strategies commonly consists of an specific check for the pointer being NULL. There are a yoke of several explanations for these NULL pointers. probably easiest to warrant is the incremental construction reason. because of the style vtable buildings are initialized, including a new characteristic pointer to the structure definition explanations All existing desk declarations to initialise that pointer to NULL. as a result it is workable to add a caller of the brand new components earlier than any example supports that components, and believe it assess for NULL and duty a default behavior. Then as incremental construction continues these vtable instances which need it could actually procure non-default methods.

A concurrent example is commit 77af1b2641faf4 including set_voltage_time_sel() to struct regulator_ops which acts on struct regulator_dev. Subsequent commit 42ab616afe8844 defines that formula for a specific machine. here's readily probably the most concurrent illustration of a very common theme.

one other commonplace purpose is that positive strategies aren't primarily meaningful in positive circumstances so the calling code without vicissitude checks for NULL and returns an commandeer oversight when discovered. There are multiple examples of this within the digital filesystem (VFS) layer. for instance, the create() feature in inode_operations is simply meaningful if the inode in question is a listing. So inode_operations structures for non-directories usually believe NULL for the create() characteristic (and a lot of others) and the calling code in vfs_create() tests for NULL and returns -EACCES.

A eventual rationale that vtables sometimes include NULL is that a component of functionality should exist would becould very well exist being transitioned from one interface to a different. a superb illustration of this is the ioctl() operation in file_operations. In 2.6.11, a brand new formulation, unlocked_ioctl() was introduced which became referred to as devoid of the huge kernel lock held. In 2.6.36, when All drivers and filesystems had been converted to submit exhaust of unlocked_ioctl(), the original ioctl() became ultimately removed. during this transition a file gadget would usually define only one of two, leaving the other defaulting to NULL.

A a bit of greater refined instance of here is study() and aio_read(), furthermore in file_operations, and the corresponding write() and aio_write(). aio_read() turned into added to aid asynchronous IO, and whether it is supplied the typical synchronous read() is not obligatory (it is effected the exhaust of do_sync_read() which calls the aio_read() components). in this case there seems to exist no goal of ever disposing of examine() - it'll continue to exist for situations where async IO isn't central comparable to particular filesystems like procfs and sysfs. So it is soundless the case that only one of each and every pair need exist defined by a filesystem, nonetheless it is not with ease a transition, it's a long-time period state.

notwithstanding there appear to exist a yoke of different reasons for a NULL duty pointer, virtually every case is an instance of one essential sample - that of featuring a default implementation for the components. in the "incremental construction" examples and the non-meaningful passage case, here's pretty straightforward. e.g. the default for inode->create() is without vicissitude to compass back an error. in the interface transition case it is just a bit of less obvious. The default for unlocked_ioctl() would exist to hold the kernel lock after which denomination the ioctl() method. The default for read() is precisely do_sync_read() and some filesystems similar to ext3 truly give this price explicitly in residence of using "NULL" to argue a default.

With that in intellect, a bit reflection means that if the actual aim is to give a default, then perhaps the best passage would exist to explicitly provide a default as opposed to the usage of the circuitous route of the usage of a default of NULL and deciphering it especially.

while NULL is definitely the easiest value to supply as a default - as the C regular assures us that uninitialized contributors of a structure finish procure set to NULL - it isn't very a lot tougher to set a more significant default. i am indebted to LWN reader wahern for the statement that C99 enables fields in a structure to exist initialized varied instances with simplest the final value taking consequence and that this allows convenient surroundings of default values comparable to via following the fundamental model:

#outline FOO_DEFAULTS .bar = default_bar, .baz = default_baz struct foo_operations my_foo = FOO_DEFAULTS, .bar = my_bar, ;

this may declare my_foo with a predefined default price for baz and a localized price for bar. as a consequence for the little charge of defining a few "default" services and including a "_DEFAULTS" entry to each and every statement, the default value for any box can easily exist chosen when the realm is first created, and automatically blanketed in each exhaust of the structure.

no longer best are meaningful defaults effortless to set aside into effect, they could result in a greater efficient implementation. In those circumstances the residence the characteristic pointer basically is NULL it's probably faster to glimpse at various and department rather than to submit an roundabout feature name. however the NULL case is awfully regularly the exception instead of the rule, and optimizing for an exception is not ordinary practice. within the greater usual case when the characteristic pointer is not NULL, the glimpse at various for NULL is with no concern a dissipate of code house and a dissipate of execution time. If they disallow NULLs they can submit All muster websites a slight bit smaller and less difficult.

In conventional, any testing performed by using the caller before calling a passage can exist seen for instance of the "mid-layer mistake" mentioned in a outdated article. It suggests that the mid-layer is making assumptions concerning the habits of the lessen degree driver rather than readily giving the driver freedom to behave in whatever approach is most relevant. This may no longer at All times exist a pricey mistake, however continues to exist foremost prevented where viable. on the other hand there's a transparent pattern within the Linux kernel that pointers in vtables can every so often exist NULLable, typically even though now not always to permit a transition, and the denomination websites may soundless in these instances examine for NULL before continuing with the name.

The observant reader could believe seen a pocket within the above biddable judgment denouncing the exhaust NULL pointers for defaults. in the case where the default is the measure case and where efficiency is paramount, the reasoning doesn't hang and a NULL pointer could neatly exist justified. Naturally the Linux kernel provides an example of one of these case for their examination.

one of the most data buildings used by the VFS for caching filesystem information is the "dentry". A "dentry" represents a reputation in the filesystem, and so every "dentry" has a father or mother, being the directory containing it, and an "inode" representing the named file. The dentry is divorce from the inode as a result of a sole file can believe several names (so an "inode" can believe varied "dentry"s). there's a dentry_operations vtable with a few operations together with, for instance, "d_compare" on the passage to compare two names and "d_hash" in order to generate a hash for the denomination to book the storage of the "dentry" in a hash table. Most filesystems finish not believe this pliability. They deal with names as uninterpreted strings of bytes so the default evaluate and hash features are the usual case. a yoke of filesystems contour these to deal with case-insensitive names however that is not the norm.

additional, filename glimpse up is a measure operation in Linux and so optimizing it is a priority. consequently these two operations appear to exist respectable candidates the residence a verify for NULL and an inlined default operation might exist appropriate. What they locate even though is that after such an optimization is warranted it is not by itself sufficient. The code that calls d_compare() and d_hash() (and a yoke of other dentry operations) does not examine these functions for NULL directly. rather they require that a number of flag bits (DCACHE_OP_HASH, DCACHE_OP_COMPARE) within the "dentry" are set up to point out no matter if the general default should soundless exist used, or whether the feature may soundless exist known as. because the flag realm is likely to exist in cache anyway, and the dentry_operations constitution will often exist not necessary at all, this avoids a reminiscence fetch in a peppery route.

So they find that the one case where the usage of a NULL characteristic pointer to point out a default may exist justified, it isn't definitely used; instead, a distinct, greater effective, mechanism is used to point out that the default passage is requested.

individuals aside from characteristic pointers

whereas most vtable-like buildings in the kernel hold exclusively feature pointers, there are a significant minority which believe non-feature-pointer fields. a lot of these seem on the surface fairly whimsical and just a few nearer inspections argue that some of them influence of contemptible design or bit-rot and their removal would simplest enrich the code.

there is one exception to the "features simplest" pattern that happens again and again and provides precise value, and so is value exploring. This pattern is seen in its most ordinary contour in struct mdk_personality which provides operations for a particular software RAID level. In selected this constitution includes an "owner", a "name", and a "record". The "proprietor" is the module that provides the implementation. The "name" is a simple identifier: some vtables believe string names, some believe numeric names, and it's always referred to as whatever distinctive like "edition", "family", "drvname", or "stage". but conceptually it remains a reputation. within the current instance there are two names, a string and a numeric "level".

The "record", whereas piece of the identical functionality, is less regular. The mdk_personality structure has a struct list_head, as does struct ts_ops. struct file_system_type has a simple pointer to the subsequent struct file_system_type. The underlying thought prerogative here is that for any particular implementation of an interface (or "closing" definition of a category) to exist usable, it ought to exist registered compass what may so that it can furthermore exist found. additional, once it has been organize it believe to exist workable to submit positive that the module maintaining the implementation isn't eliminated while it's in use.

There appear to exist practically as many forms of registration towards an interface in Linux as there are interfaces to register towards, so finding extraordinary patterns there would exist a difficult task. despite the fact it's pretty typical for a "vtable" to exist handled because the fundamental deal with on a particular implementation of an interface and to believe an "owner" pointer which can furthermore exist used to procure a reference on the module which offers the implementation.

So the sample they determine prerogative here is that a constitution of characteristic pointers used as a "vtable" for object components dispatch should soundless at All times include handiest characteristic pointers. Exceptions require transparent justification. a measure exception makes it workable for a module pointer and workable other fields equivalent to a denomination and a list pointer. These fields are used to aid the registration protocol for the particular interface. When there isn't any listing pointer it is very probably that the total vtable can exist treated as study-simplest. during this case the vtable will frequently exist declared as a const constitution and so could even exist saved in examine-most effective reminiscence.

Combining methods for distinctive objects

A closing regular deviation from the "pure vtable" pattern that they survey in the Linux kernel happens when the first dispute to the duty isn't at All times the equal object category. In a sheer vtable which is referenced by using a pointer in a particular records constitution, the primary dispute of each characteristic is exactly that statistics structure. What understanding could there exist for deviating from that pattern? It seems that there are few, some more appealing than others.

The easiest and least exciting clarification is that, for no obvious motive, the target records structure is listed in different places in the dispute record. as an example All services in struct fb_ops hold a struct fb_info. while in 18 situations that structure is the first argument, in five cases it is the closing. there's nothing most likely wrong with this selection and it's unlikely to confuse builders. It is simply an issue for records miners like your writer who need to filter it out as an inappropriate sample.

A mild deviation on this pattern is viewed in struct rfkill_ops the residence two features hold a struct rkfill but the third - set_block() - takes a void *records. additional investigation suggests that this opaque facts is exactly that which is stored in rfkill->information, so set_block() might quite simply exist described to hold a struct rfkill and simply to result the ->information hyperlink itself. This deviation is sufficiently non-obvious that it might conceivably confuse developers as well as records miners and so should exist averted.

The next deviation in seen for example in platform_suspend_ops, oprofile_operations, security_operations and a number of others. These hold an peculiar assortment of arguments with no glaring sample. although these are actually very different types of vtable structures in that the object they belong to are singletons. There is just one dynamic platform, just one profiler, only one safety coverage. consequently the "object" on which these operations act is a component of the international situation and so doesn't deserve to exist protected in the arguments of any functions.

Having filtered these two patterns out as now not being very wonderful we're left with two that finish serve to inform us anything about object exhaust in the kernel.

quota_format_ops and export_operations are two diverse operations constructions that duty on a lot of diverse statistics structures. In each case the obvious fundamental object (e.g. a struct super_block or a struct dentry) already has a vtable constitution dedicated to it (equivalent to super_operations or dentry_operations) and these new structures add new operations. In each and every case the brand new operations kindly a cohesive unit presenting a related set of functionality - no matter if aiding disk quotas or NFS export. They don't All act on the identical object with ease since the performance in question is relative upon a variety of objects.

The top-quality term from the language of object-oriented programming for this is likely the "mixin". although the fit can furthermore not exist ultimate - reckoning on what your accurate figuring out of mixin is - the theory of bringing in a group of functionality devoid of the exhaust of strict hierarchical inheritance is terribly near the purpose of quota_format_ops and export_operations.

once they comprehend to exist searching for mixins like these they are able to determine rather a yoke of extra examples. The pattern to exist alert for is not the one that led us prerogative here - an operations structure that operates on plenty of distinctive objects - however reasonably the one they discovered the residence the services in an "operations" structure operate on objects that believe already got their personal "operations" structure. When an object has a huge number of operations which are central and these operations naturally community into subsets, it makes a lot of sense to divide them into divorce vtable-like structures. There are a few examples of this in the networking code the residence for instance both tcp_congestion_ops and inet_connection_sock_af_ops operate (primarily) on a struct sock, which itself has already received a little set of committed operations.

So the pattern of a "mixin" - at the least as defined as a set of operations which celebrate to at least one or more objects with out being the fundamental operations for these objects - is a sample it's frequently organize in the kernel and looks to exist rather valuable in enabling improved modularization of code.

The remaining sample which explains non-uniform feature targets is likely the most interesting, in particular in its distinction to the evident utility of object-oriented programming style. Examples of this sample abound with ata_port_operations, tty_operations, nfs_rpc_ops and atmdev_ops All performing as helpful examples. although they will focus primarily on some examples from the filesystem layer, peculiarly super_operations and inode_operations.

there is a powerful hierarchy of objects in the implementation of a filesystem where the filesystem - represented by using a "super_block" - has a few data (struct inode) which might furthermore believe a few names or links (struct dentry). further every file may back statistics in the page cache (struct address_space) which comprises a yoke of particular person pages (struct page). there is a passage in which All of those several objects belong to the filesystem as a whole. If a page has to exist loaded with information from a file, the filesystem is aware of the passage to finish that, and it's probably the equal mechanism for every web page in each file. the residence it is rarely All the time the equal, the filesystem is aware of that too. So they could conceivably redeem every operation on every one of these objects in the struct super_block, as it represents the filesystem and could recognize what to finish in each case.

In drill that extreme isn't a biddable option. it is quite probably that while there are similarities between the storage of an everyday file and a listing, there are additionally primary alterations and being capable of encode those changes in divorce vtables may furthermore exist effective. from time to time little symbolic hyperlinks are stored directly within the inode while better hyperlinks are kept just like the contents of a regular file. Having different readlink() operations for both instances can submit the code much more readable.

while the intense of every operation attached to the one significant constitution is not gold standard, it is equally proper that the balky strict is not pattern either. The struct web page in Linux does not believe a vtable pointer at All - partially as a result of they are looking to hold the structure as little as workable since it is so populous. rather the address_space_operations structure includes the operations that act on a web page. in a similar passage the super_operations structure consists of some operations that drill to inodes, and inode_operations carries some operations that apply to dentries.

it's evidently viable to believe operations constructions attached to a guardian of the goal object - presenting the target holds a reference to the guardian, which it perpetually does - notwithstanding it is not fairly so transparent that it is at All times really useful. within the case of struct web page which avoids having a vtable pointer altogether the benefit is obvious. within the case of struct inode which has its own vtable pointer, the improvement of getting some operations (similar to destroy_inode() or write_inode()) attached to the super_block is less clear.

As there are a few vtable buildings where any given feature pointer can exist kept, the precise alternative is in many circumstances slight more than historical accident. certainly the proliferation of struct dentry operations in inode_operations looks to exist largely because of the incontrovertible fact that a few of them used to act at once on the inode, however adjustments in the VFS finally required this to alternate. as an example in 2.1.seventy eight-pre1, each and every of link(), readlink(), followlink() (and a few others which at the minute are defunct) were changed from taking a struct inode to hold a struct dentry instead. This set the scene for "dentry" operations to exist in inode_operations, so when setattr and getattr had been introduced for two.3.48, it doubtless appeared completely herbal to encompass them in inode_operations however that they acted essentially on a dentry.

might exist they might simplify issues through doing away with dentry_operations altogether. Some operations that act on dentries are already in inode_operations and super_operations - why not flow them All there? whereas dentries are not as populous as struct web page there are nonetheless lots of them and casting off the "d_op" realm might redeem 5% of the reminiscence used by means of that structure (on x86-64).

With two exceptions, each lively filesystem only has a sole dentry operations constitution in effect. Some filesystem implementations like "vfat" define two - e.g. one with case-sensitive matching and one with case-insensitive matching - but there is only one energetic per tremendous-block. So it might seem to exist that the operations in dentry_operations could exist moved to super_operations, or at the least accessed via "s_d_op". both exceptions are ceph and procfs. These filesystems exhaust several d_revalidate() operations in diverse parts of the filesystem and - in the case of procfs - distinctive d_release() operations. The necessary distinctions may quite simply exist made in per-superblock versions of those operations. finish these cases warrant the 5% house charge? Arguably no longer.

directly embedded characteristic pointers

finally it's acceptable to contemplate the alternate sample outlined at the beginning, where duty pointers are kept without detain within the object in residence of in a divorce vtable structure. This pattern may furthermore exist seen in struct request_queue which has nine characteristic pointers, struct efi which has ten feature pointers, and struct sock which has six characteristic pointers.

The can charge of embedded pointers is absolutely house. When vtables are used, there is only one reproduction of the vtable and multiple copies of an object (in most situations) so if more than one characteristic pointer is needed, a vtable would back area. The can charge of a vtable is a further memory reference, though cache may prick back much of this charge in some situations. A vtable additionally has a value of flexibility. When each object wants the exact very set of operations a vtable is decent, but when there's a need to personally tailor one of the operations for each object, then embedded characteristic pointer can supply that flexibility. here is illustrated quite properly with the aid of the comment with "zoom_video" in struct pcmcia_socket

/* Zoom video behaviour is so chip positive its not value adding this to _ops */

So the residence objects aren't very populous, the residence the list of duty pointers is small, and the residence dissimilar mixins are needed, embedded duty pointers are used instead of a divorce vtable.

formulation Dispatch abstract

If they coalesce All of the sample elements that we've organize in Linux they determine that:

system pointers that duty on a particular type of object are at All times accumulated in a vtable associated at once with that object, even though they could additionally seem:

  • In a mixin vtable that collects linked performance which could exist selectable independently of the base type of the object.
  • within the vtable for a "dad or mum" object when doing so avoids the need for a vtable pointer in a populous object
  • directly in the object when there are few formulation pointers, or they deserve to exist for my piece tailored to the particular object.
  • These vtables infrequently hold the ease apart from feature pointers, although fields mandatory to register the particular type can exist appropriate. allowing these feature pointers to exist NULL is a common but not always choicest passage for handling defaults.

    So in exploring the Linux Kernel code they believe discovered that notwithstanding it isn't written in an object-oriented language, it definitely carries objects, courses (represented as vtables), and even mixins. It additionally incorporates ideas no longer perpetually organize in object-oriented languages comparable to delegating object the prerogative passage to a "dad or mum" object.

    hopefully understanding these different patterns and the factors for making a selection on between them can result in extra uniform application of the patterns throughout the kernel, and therefore submit it simpler for a newcomer to hold into account which sample is being followed. within the second a piece of their examination of object oriented patterns they are able to determine the a lot of ways in which data inheritance is done in the Linux kernel and focus on the strengths and weaknesses of every passage with a purpose to survey where each is most acceptable.

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