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050-720 Novell Certified Linux Administrator 11

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050-720 exam Dumps Source : Novell Certified Linux Administrator 11

Test Code : 050-720
Test designation : Novell Certified Linux Administrator 11
Vendor designation : Novell
: 134 real Questions

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Novell Novell Certified Linux Administrator

Novell licensed Linux Administrator (CLA) | killexams.com real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

This seller-impartial Certification is offered by using:Novell CorporationWaltham, MA USAPhone: 1-800-529-3400Email: This email ply is being protected from spambots. You requisite JavaScript enabled to view it.

skill stage: foundation                          popularity: lively

low in cost: $125 (shortest song)               

abstract:for individuals who provide day-to-day administration of installed SUSE Linux enterprise Server networks.

preliminary requirements:You should flux Novell's CLA exam ($125). choose from CLA 11 LPI, CLA 11, and CLA 10.

On February 9th, 2010, Novell and the Linux professional Institute announced a global partnership to standardize their entry-degree Linux certification courses on LPIC-1. under the phrases of the agreement, gross certified LPIC-1 holders will possess the capacity to apply for Novell CLA certification with out extra checks or prices.

be positive to consume a commemorate at the CompTIA Linux+ certification for an identical association.

carrying on with requirements:every now and then, Novell training functions may moreover require you to consume an examination to hold present on the newest options and technologies. These exams are regarded a relentless Certification Requirement (CCR), which hold your potential up-to-date and retain your certification beneficial in the industry.

See gross Novell Certifications

vendor's web page for this certification

Novell Joins OpenCourseWare Consortium to pressure Linux, IT practicing | killexams.com real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

by PR Newswire

Article ranking:

March 19, 2007 07:00 PM EDT



SALT LAKE city, BrainShare(R) 2007, March 19 /PRNewswire-FirstCall/ -- Novell these days announced it has joined the OpenCourseWare Consortium, a worldwide initiative of larger training institutions designed to create open academic content material the usage of a shared mannequin. Novell is among the many first industry organisations to consume section in the OpenCourseWare Consortium, becoming a member of the likes of MIT, Harvard legislations school, and a few different main universities worldwide. Novell moreover launched nowadays its first certification focused on the Linux* computing device, reflecting growing pastime in open source alternate options to latest proprietary computers. subsequently, Novell(R) consumers gain vital original training tools for maximizing the cost of their Novell investments.

"in the spirit of the open supply utility mannequin, the OpenCourseWare Consortium is a collaboration of over a hundred institutions worldwide working to advertise the free and open digital booklet of unreasonable best educational substances, organized as courses," spoke of John Dehlin, director of the OpenCourseWare Consortium. "It is simply becoming that Novell, a leader in open supply and a pioneer in IT training, is among the first industrial agencies to subsist section of the Consortium. They warmly welcome Novell to the OpenCourseWare Consortium, and hope this serves as a model for extra industry corporations to share their potential in the schooling arena."

The OpenCourseWare Consortium has three primary desires. First is to lengthen the gain and strike of opencourseware by encouraging the adoption and adaptation of open educational substances everywhere. second is to foster the building of further opencourseware initiatives. ultimately, the consortium goals to acquire positive the long-term sustainability of opencourseware initiatives through deciding upon ways to better effectiveness and reduce charges. Novell might subsist contributing an initial 10 training lessons under the terms of its membership in the Consortium, ranging from well-known-aim introductory courses on Linux to more really estimable courses focused on migration to Novell's Linux and Open commercial enterprise Server systems. Novell's opencourseware library is determined at http://ocw.novell.com/ .

"Contributing to the open schooling group is necessary to their mission," observed MaryJo Swenson, vp of Novell practising services. "We want individuals with ease the usage of Novell products. by means of expanding the attain of open schooling into the company world, they will attain hundreds of americans attracted to advancing their knowledge and capabilities."

also on the working towards front, Novell these days launched its Novell certified Linux computer Administrator 10 software. This certification will validate the competencies of directors managing Novell's award-profitable SUSE(R) Linux enterprise computing device. With expanding traction out there around the Linux desktop, the brand original certification will supply customers self assurance they can secure the expertise they deserve to maximize the value of Linux computers of their environment.

For more particulars on the OpenCourseWare Consortium initiative, delight talk over with http://www.ocwconsortium.org/about/index.shtml .

For greater suggestions on Novell's certification courses, together with the original Novell licensed Linux computer Administrator application, delight argue with http://www.novell.com/training/certinfo .

About Novell

Novell, Inc. grants infrastructure utility for the Open enterprise. we're a leader in enterprise-large operating programs in response to Linux and open source and the protection and systems management services required to operate mixed IT environments. They advocate their purchasers minimize can charge, complexity and risk, allowing them to focal point on innovation and boom. For greater suggestions, search advice from http://www.novell.com/ .

word: Novell and SUSE are registered logos, and BrainShare is a registered provider note of Novell, Inc. within the united states and different countries. *Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds. gross different third-birthday party logos are the property of their respective owners.

Novell, Inc.

CONTACT: Bruce Lowry of Novell, +1-415-383-8408, or [email protected];or Rebecca Paquette of SHIFT Communications, +1-617-681-1249, or[email protected]

web web page: http://www.novell.com/

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Linux certified professional Certification & degree software information | killexams.com real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

desktop tips know-how or community expertise majors additionally present lessons related principally to Linux techniques. while these classes are not always the focal factor of the bachelor's diploma program, they could set aside together college students for Linux certification. Internships might interject college students to purposeful functions in Linux server and network administration, troubleshooting and programming.

Bachelor's diploma classes in computing device engineering and network expertise continually handiest comprise one or two classes connected particularly to Linux techniques. despite the fact, those lessons coalesce thought and lab toil and constantly cowl more than a few Linux-linked themes. students gain knowledge of the fundamentals of file gadget administration, doc processing, information redundancy, configuration and person administration. They moreover dissect selected Linux concepts, such as the working equipment's kernel and daemons. Some issues regarding climb and advanced Linux administration consist of:

  • Server-side programming equipment
  • email and networking protocols
  • junk mail filtering recommendations
  • background of open source and free utility
  • IBM computing device architecture
  • gadget navigation and instructions
  • universal career options

    Graduates of a certificate software might qualify for entry-degree positions in the IT box. Some alternatives include:

  • methods engineer
  • Linux community administrator
  • Open supply programmer
  • counsel protection specialist
  • net server administrator
  • Employment Outlook

    according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor facts (BLS), community and desktop device administrators held over 374,000 jobs throughout the nation in 2015 (www.bls.gov). The median income for these identical employees turned into $seventy seven,810 in 2015. The BLS projected that require for network and laptop techniques administrators between the years 2014 and 2024 will develop 8%.

    Certification options

    CompTIA, a supplier-neutral IT company, includes a Linux+ administration credential among its certification options. The Linux knowledgeable Institute moreover presents three stages of widely wide-spread Linux administration certifications, together with Junior (LPIC-1), superior (LPIC-2) and Senior degree Linux knowledgeable (LPIC-3) designations. moreover, Novell offers certifications in response to the SuSE edition of the working device. apart from Novell's certified Linux professional credential, Linux specialists can moreover examine for computer and server administrator designations, in addition to a Linux engineer credential. pink Hat gives administration and engineering credentials based on its own distribution of the Linux working system.

    students attracted to fitting a Linux licensed professional can prepare for the certification by using enrolling in a certificates, affiliate's or bachelor's degree application. Graduates can toil in quite a lot of suggestions know-how positions and can requisite to pursue further credentials.

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    Novell Certified Linux Administrator 11

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    Novell Certified Linux Administrator (CLA) | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    This vendor-neutral Certification is Offered By:Novell CorporationWaltham, MA USAPhone: 1-800-529-3400Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You requisite JavaScript enabled to view it.

    Skill Level: Foundation                          Status: Active

    Low Cost: $125 (shortest track)               

    Summary:For individuals who provide day-to-day administration of installed SUSE Linux Enterprise Server networks.

    Initial Requirements:You must pass Novell's CLA exam ($125). choose from CLA 11 LPI, CLA 11, and CLA 10.

    On February 9th, 2010, Novell and the Linux Professional Institute announced an international partnership to standardize their entry-level Linux certification programs on LPIC-1. Under the terms of the agreement, gross qualified LPIC-1 holders will possess the opportunity to apply for Novell CLA certification without additional exams or fees.

    Be positive to check out the CompTIA Linux+ certification for a similar arrangement.

    Continuing Requirements:From time to time, Novell Training Services may require you to consume an exam to advocate current on the latest solutions and technologies. These exams are considered a Continuing Certification Requirement (CCR), which advocate your skills up-to-date and advocate your certification valuable in the marketplace.

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    Novell Certified Linux Professional Exam: preliminary GNU and Unix Commands | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    With an eye toward passing the Novell Certified Linux Professional Exam, this chapter focuses on the basic GNU and Unix commands.

    This chapter is from the bespeak 

    The NCLP practicum requires you to possess a mastery of SuSE Linux Enterprise Server. Before you can possess a mastery of any one specific implementation, however, you must first know and understand the basics of the operating system. This chapter does not focus on any specific testing objectives for the practicum, but provides you with the core set of skills that you must know in order to subsist able to toil effectively with any Linux implementation.

    This chapter covers the following course objectives:

  • Accessing the Command Line (3036)

  • Introduction to Command Shells (3036)

  • Understanding Command Syntax and Special Characters (3036)

  • Executing Commands at the Command Line (3036)

  • Common Command Line Tasks (3036)

  • Piping and Redirection (3036)

  • Changing Directories and Listing Directory Contents (3036)

  • Creating, Viewing, and Appending Files (3036)

  • Copying and touching Files and Directories (3036)

  • Creating Directories (3036)

  • Deleting Files and Directories (3036)

  • Using grep to Search File Content (3036)

  • Understanding Regular Expressions (3036)

  • Introduction to Linux Text Editors (3036)

  • Using Command Line Editors to Edit (3036)

  • Using Desktop Editors to Edit Files in the Linux System (3036)

  • View Processes from the GUI and the Command Line Interface (3036)

  • Multiuser Processes and Multitasking in the Linux System (3036)

  • Monitor Processes (3038)

  • This chapter contains a noteworthy deal of content, and it is imperative that you understand and are restful with gross of it before touching on. It cannot subsist stressed enough that the commands, utilities, and skills discussed in this chapter lay the foundation upon which gross Linux administration is built.

    Course Objectives Covered

  • Accessing the Command Line (3036)

  • Introduction to Command Shells (3036)

  • Understanding Command Syntax and Special Characters (3036)

  • Executing Commands at the Command Line (3036)

  • Common Command Line Tasks (3036)

  • Piping and Redirection (3036)

  • To understand the command line and toil there effectively, you must understand the processes that are taking place. Within Linux, the shell is the command interpreter. It takes commands that a user gives, processes them (or sends them to the confiscate utility/interacts with the kernel), and formats the finished results for the user. Thus, the shell is the mediator between the operating system and the user. Not only can it interpret commands, but it can moreover ply redirection (input and output), filename generation, some programming, variable substitution, piping, and a host of other services.

    A number of different shells (interpreters) are available, and different vendors comprise different combinations of choices with their operating systems. The simplest of gross is the Bourne shell (sh), which is one of the earliest ones created for the Unix platform and offers the smallest number of features. The Korn shell (ksh) was one of the first to expand upon, and deviate from, sh, and it includes a larger number of options. The Bourne Again shell (bash) took many of the features from Korn, and some original ones, and combined them with sh, while trying to reduce deviations. The Z shell (zsh) is the largest shell of gross and added a gross original set of features to the Korn shell.

    Not to subsist overlooked are shells created to acquire the environment more friendly to those close with the C programming language. The first of these was the C shell (csh), which added C-like features to the interpreter and deviated greatly from the Bourne shell. It has been expanded upon by Tom's C shell (tcsh) .

    As a generalization, every vendor includes more than one shell for the user to choose from, but rarely attain they comprise gross the available shells. In many versions, there are three prevalent shells:

    Additionally, there are often two links within the operating system so that if a user attempts to expend sh, they are really given bash, and if they attempt to expend csh, they are really given tcsh.


    All shells reside in the /bin directory and the default can subsist specified for the user in the user's /etc/passwd file entry.

    There are slight deviations in the way each shell carries out its tasks, but gross fulfill a core set of functions. Throughout this section, they will commemorate at the core functions for gross shells and argue differences as they apply.

    Command-Line Interaction

    When a command is entered, the shell must determine if the command is for it (internal) or not (external). If the command is an internal one, it does the processing and sends the output back without further interaction being needed. If the command cannot subsist create within the shell itself, it is assumed to subsist an external utility (such as ls, cat, cal, and so on). The command syntax for external commands is always assumed to be

    {program name} {option(s)} {argument(s)}

    Although it is always assumed that there are three components to the command, there requisite not be. The simplest command to give is simply the designation of the utility, for example:


    This will revert an output similar to

    Desktop sample snapshot01.gif snapshot02.gif

    In this case, only the program designation was given, and no options. This results in a listing of gross files within the present directory being shown in the default format. An option can subsist specified to change the display to include/exclude information and/or change the format of the display. An instance would be

    ls -l

    This changes the output to

    total 34 drwx------ 5 root root 1024 Jul 19 16:34 Desktop -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 155 Jul 19 16:48 sample -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 12497 Jul 19 16:39 snapshot01.gif -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 17257 Jul 19 16:50 snapshot02.gif

    Here, the program designation has been specified (ls), as well as an option to expend with it (-l) to change the listing to the "long" format.


    It is necessary to understand that whitespace must always subsist used to part the parameters from one another. Whitespace can subsist either a space character or a tab character.

    If the command were given as ls-l, an mistake message would subsist generated because there is no utility by the designation of ls-l, and the interpreter would not subsist able to distinguish the program designation from the option.

    The options, as well as the arguments, are optional and never required. To complete the example, an controversy can moreover subsist used with the command:

    ls -l *.gif

    This will result in the following display:

    -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 12497 Jul 19 16:39 snapshot01.gif -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 17257 Jul 19 16:50 snapshot02.gif


    Alternatively, the controversy can subsist used without the options, fancy this:

    ls *.gif

    The number of arguments that can subsist given is not limited to one. Although there may subsist limitations on the number of parameters an individual utility will accept, typically you can string multiple requests together. For example, instead of specifying

    ls -l sa*

    as one command and then following it with

    ls -l *.gif

    you can accomplish the selfsame operation with

    ls -l sa* *.gif

    The result of the operation becomes

    -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 155 Jul 19 16:48 sample -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 12497 Jul 19 16:39 snapshot01.gif -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 17257 Jul 19 16:50 snapshot02.gif

    If the number of arguments you are giving becomes too long to subsist easily readable on the command line, or if you simply want to wreck up the entry a bit, you can expend the backstroke character to signify that you are continuing from one line to the next. For example

    ls -l sa* \ *.gif

    If you were giving hundreds of such arguments, you would expend the backstroke following each entry to part each. This would acquire entry easier to view and the command would not execute until the Enter key is pressed without being preceded by a backstroke. For example

    ls -l sa* \ *.gif \ *.ead \ *.txt \ *.doc Connecting Commands

    In gross the examples thus far, the Enter key is used to inform the shell that you possess given a command that needs to subsist processed. You are not, however, limited to giving the shell only one command at a time.

    Multiple commands, not connected to one another in any way, can subsist given on the selfsame line as long as the semicolon (;) is used to connect them. For example, it is practicable to note gross the files in the current directory and the current date by giving the following two commands in succession:

    ls date

    These are unrelated commands in that the output of the second has absolutely nothing to attain with the output of the first. You can combine them on a unique command line with a semicolon between the two and secure the selfsame result:

    ls ; date

    The semicolon is a special character signaling that multiple commands are on the selfsame line. This character allows you to wreck the whitespace rule on both sides of it (ls;date) while giving you the selfsame result.

    If the commands attain possess something in common—the output of one is to become the input of the next—they are connected using a pipe (|). For example, if a list of files within a directory is too long to suitable on one screen, you can view a screen at a time by using this command:

    ls -l | more

    Here the output of the ls -l command becomes the input of the more command. If the first section of the entire command line fails, the second section cannot possibly subsist executed.


    Wildcards are characters used to signify other characters that the shell fills in. The two most common wildcard characters are the asterisk (*) and question note (?). Although they are often confused, their meanings are different and can lead to completely different results.

    The asterisk is used to signify any and all; anything and nothing; alpha and omega. For example

    ls s*

    will find gross entries (files and directories) within the current directory starting with the epistle "s" and having any number of characters following—including none. practicable results it could generate in the display include

    s sa sam samp sampl sample samples samples.gif

    Note that it finds "s" alone, and "s" with any number of entries following it. In contrast, the question note is a placeholder for one character, and only one character. Using the selfsame file possibilities, the following command

    ls s?

    will only find entries (files and directories) in the current directory starting with the epistle "s" and having only one character following. The resulting display generated is


    If you want to find only five-letter entries climb with "s", the command to expend would be

    ls s????

    To recap, the asterisk means gross or none, and the question note always means one. These two wildcards are not mutually exclusive, and can subsist used in combination with one another as the requisite arises. For example, to find only files with three-letter extensions, regardless of the filename, the command would be

    ls *.???

    To muddy the waters a bit, you can moreover expend brackets ([]) to specify practicable values. gross the practicable values must reside within the brackets and are used individually. The following instance will find gross entries that start with either "d" or "e" and possess an unlimited number of characters following:

    ls [de]*

    To find only three-character entries that start with "d" or "e", the command would become

    ls [de]??

    The number of characters within the brackets can subsist virtually unlimited. Therefore, if you wanted to find gross entries that start with a lowercase epistle instead of a number (or other character), you could expend "[abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz]". However, because this is a range, a much simpler way to signify it would subsist "[a-z]":

    ls [a-z]*

    The ranges requisite not subsist a complete set (though complete sets are easier to specify), and can jump around if needed. For example, if you only want to commemorate for entries that Fall within the orbit from "d" to "t", you could expend either "[defghijklmnopqrst]" or "[d-t]". If the entry could subsist between the two values upper- and lowercase, you can either expend "[DEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTdefghijklmnopqrst]" or "[D-Td-t]".

    Some more examples follow:

    The Path Statement and Other Variables

    When you enter a command at the command prompt and the shell cannot find it internally, it must commemorate for a utility by that designation externally. It does this by searching directories specified in the PATH variable, in the order they are listed, until it finds the first match. If no match is create after gross listed directories possess been searched, the result is an mistake message ("command not found").

    There are several necessary things to know about the path:

  • You can view your path by using the reecho command:

  • echo $PATH
  • The path does not, by default, comprise the present directory. Thus you can create an executable file in your home directory, note it perquisite before you (with ls), and when you character its name, you will subsist told that the command cannot subsist found. To circumvent this, you can give the complete path to the file, add your home directory to your PATH variable, poke the file to a directory in the path statement, or add the present directory variable (.) to the PATH variable.

  • Entries within the path are separated by colons (:).

  • The order of the PATH search should always comprise the most common directories where executables can subsist create first (the bin directories) and the user-specific directories (if any) at the end.

  • To add another directory to your path, you can redefine the entire statement, or simply append the original directory with the command

    PATH=$PATH:{new directory}

    Thus to add the directory /home/edulaney to the path, the command would be


    Or you can add a variable that signifies you always want the directory you are currently working in to subsist searched for the utility:



    For security reasons, it is always recommended that you not comprise the current directory in your path. If you must attain so, however, it should subsist at the desist of the PATH statement—as shown in the preceding example—not at the beginning.

    For example, if your current PATH is equal to

    /sbin:/usr/sbin:/usr/local/sbin:/root/bin:/usr/local/bin:/ usr/bin

    then you want the original PATH to commemorate like

    /sbin:/usr/sbin:/usr/local/sbin:/root/bin:/usr/local/bin:/ usr/bin:./

    and not


    because the directories are always searched in the order they loom in PATH.

    Common Variables

    Any variable that exists can display its values using the following syntax:

    echo ${variable name}

    Thus the command

    echo $MAIL

    will present the mail directory, $HOME the home directory, and so on. To note a complete list of the environmental variables that are defined, you can expend two commands—env and set. Although the displays can disagree slightly (environmental variables only versus local variables), for the most section the output of env is a subset of the output of set. Some of the variables that can display comprise the following:

  • HOME—The directory you initiate in, and where you desist up when typing cd without any other parameters

  • LINES—Number of lines within the display before pausing (more)

  • LOGNAME—The username under which the current user is logged in

  • PWD—The present working directory, or where you are now

  • SHELL—Which interpreter you are using

  • TERM—The character of terminal, or emulation, in use

  • USER—This rarely differs from LOGNAME but can if the user is switching permission levels with commands such as su

  • NOTE

    As a universal rule, predefined system variables are always in uppercase.

    You can change the value of variables as needed, or add your own to subsist referenced in programs or at the command prompt. For example, to create a original variable called TODAY, expend the following syntax:


    You can now note the value of the variable by using the command

    echo $TODAY

    The result will subsist Wednesday. If you now expend the command


    the variable will loom there. However, if you expend the following command, it will not:


    The variable has been created locally, and can subsist referenced locally. In order for it to subsist accessible in subroutines and child processes, you must poke it from local status into the environment, and this is accomplished via the export command:

    export TODAY

    This moves the variable to where it can subsist create in the environment, as well as locally, and accessed by subroutines and child processes. The variable, and its value, will subsist available for the duration of the session, and lost when you log out. To acquire the value permanent, you must add the entry to a profile.

    To change the value of the variable, simply define its original value:


    Because it has already been exported, this requisite not subsist done again, and the original value will apply locally as well as in the environment. Should it subsist necessary to remove a variable, you can expend the unset command.

    Among those variables present and definable are those that present the prompt. The prompt is the visual message from the shell that tells you it is ready for input. The default prompts include

  • $ as the final character for Bourne, BASH, and Korn shells

  • % as the final character for C shell and Z shell

  • > as the final character for tcsh

  • The primary prompt is either the variable PS1 or prompt, based on which shell you are using. In bash, a typical value for PS1 is

    [\u@\h \W]\$

    Dissected into its components, PS1 is equal to the following:

  • The left bracket ([)

  • The designation of the current user

  • The at attribute (@)

  • The designation of the current host

  • A space

  • The present working directory

  • The perquisite bracket (])

  • The dollar sign ($)

  • An instance of this prompt would be

    [edulaney@server7 home]$

    The backstroke (\) character is used to signify that a special value should subsist used. Different values that can subsist used for the prompt comprise those shown in Table 3.1.

    Variables to Define the Prompt




    Current date


    Name of host to first period


    New line








    Current directory


    History number


    Command number


    Default prompt—$ for gauge users, and # for root


    An actual backstroke (literal)


    ABC (the value of that text, or any text given)

    Looking at the variables on the system, you will find that more than PS1 exists. For example, earlier in this chapter, they discussed ending a line with a backstroke to signify that you are not finished entering input yet. If they commemorate at the sequence of events, and comprise prompts, it would commemorate fancy this:

    [edulaney@server7 home]$ ls -l *.gif \ > *.fig \ > *.bmp

    Note that the prompt changed from PS1 to a greater-than sign (>). If it had stayed PS1, you would not know that it was silent accepting input, so it changed from the primary prompt to a secondary prompt to signify the change in mode. The prompt represented (by default) by the greater-than sign is PS2. Its value can subsist changed from the default to any value you want, including gross the special values given in the earlier table. Within most shells, there are three to four layers of prompts.

    By now you've realized that the dollar sign ($) is used to signify a variable; when you possess a variable named EXAMPLE, you view its contents by examining $EXAMPLE. Three other variables exist for a shell that can subsist useful in determining your environment.

  • The first—$$—will present the process ID number of the shell now running:

  • echo $$
  • The second—$?—will present the results of the final command that you ran in terms of whether it was successful (0) or not (1). For example, the ls utility accepts an option of -F that will differentiate between directories and files by putting a slash behind the designation of directories. The ls utility does not possess a -z option. Given this knowledge, the following sequence shows how $? can subsist utilized, and includes the prompts and output of each operation:

  • [edulaney@server7 home]$ ls -F Desktop\ sample snapshot01.gif snapshot02.gif [edulaney@server7 home]$ reecho $? 0 [edulaney@server7 home]$ ls -z ls: invalid option -- z [edulaney@server7 home]$ reecho $? 1
  • The third variable—$!—will present the process ID number of the final child process started in the background. If no child processes possess been started in the background, the result will subsist empty. For this discussion it is useful to know that placing an ampersand (&) at the desist of the command will execute the command in the background. For example

  • [edulaney@server7 home]$ reecho $! [edulaney@server7 home]$ ls -F & [edulaney@server7 home]$ reecho $! 19321 [edulaney@server7 home]$
  • In the first instance, no job had been sent to the background, so the returned value was empty. A job was then sent to the background, and its process ID number could subsist create by echoing $!.


    One of the most difficult components of the shell to understand is often the expend of quotes. There are a few rules to recollect to acquire understanding the concept easier:

  • There are three types of quotes—double quotes ("), unique quotes ('), and back quotes (´). Each has a different and distinct meaning. Double quotes are used to disable gross characters except ', \, and $. unique quotes disable gross characters except the back quote. The back quote substitutes the value for a command.

  • Quotes must always subsist used in even numbers. If you give an odd number, the shell believes that you possess not finished with input yet and waits for more.

  • You can coalesce and match different types of quotes and embed them within one another.

  • Let's examine each rule in order. If you possess a file named sample of the worlds best cigars, and you give this command:

    cat sample of the worlds best cigars

    The cat utility will first try to open a file named sample, then one named of, followed by four other files: the, worlds, best, cigars. The whitespace between the words is interpreted as delimiters between different files. In order to subsist able to note the file, the command must subsist changed to

    cat "sample of the worlds best cigars"

    The double quotes cancel the default signification of the whitespace and allow the value between them to subsist interpreted as a unique entry. The double quotes cancel the signification of most special characters, but not all. For example, suppose there is a variable named instance that is equal to 25:

    echo $EXAMPLE

    This will revert "25". Likewise, the following will moreover revert "25":

    echo "$EXAMPLE"

    And the following will revert "$EXAMPLE":

    echo '$EXAMPLE'

    The unique quotes proceed above and beyond the double quotes and moreover cancel out the signification of the dollar sign.

    Going in another direction

    echo 'date'

    will revert "date". Substituting the unique quotes for back quotes will possess a different result:

    echo ´date´

    will revert the results of the date command. An alternative to the back quotes in the newer shells is to set the command within parentheses and deal it as a variable. Thus the date can subsist echoed as in the preceding instance with the command:

    echo $(date)

    If you fail to expend an even number of any quote set, PS1 is replaced by PS2, and continues to subsist so until the total number of quotes used (each set) is an even number. This can subsist useful when you possess a lengthy entry you want to wreck into lines during entry. The following instance includes the prompts and moreover shows the expend of one set of quotes (back quotes) within another (double quotes):

    [edulaney@server7 home]$ EXAMPLE="Hi, the date > and time now > are ´date´." [edulaney@server7 home]$ reecho $EXAMPLE Hi, the date and time now are Thu Aug 10 11:12:37 EDT 2000 [edulaney@server7 home]$

    In many instances, the quotes requisite to subsist mixed and matched. One of the biggest problems you will encounter, however, is that special characters acquire it difficult to display them as output. For example, assume the desist result of an reecho operation to be

    Karen says "Hi"

    If you expend the command

    echo Karen says "Hi"

    the result will be

    Karen says Hi

    The shell interprets the quotation marks as signification that the text within them should subsist taken as a unique entry. The shell performs the operation given it, and loses the quotes in the process. To secure around this, you must expend the backslash (\) character to override the default signification of the quotes:

    echo Karen says \"Hi\"

    Note that the backslash—literal—character must precede each incidence of the quotes, and is always only estimable for the character immediately following it.

    Command History

    The bash shell keeps a list of commands that you give it and allows you to reuse those commands from the list rather than needing to retype them each time. From the command line, you can expend the up and down arrows to scroll through recent commands. You can moreover enter two bangs (!!) to rerun the very final command you gave.

    Typing history shows gross the commands that are stored, with an incrementing number on the left. Typing a unique bang and one of those command numbers will rerun that command, as in !205.


    Instead of seeing the entire history list, you can choose to note only the most recent entries by following the history command with the number of lines you want to see, fancy this:

    history 5 history 10

    Alternatively, you can character a bang followed by a set of characters and the shell will rerun the most recent command starting with those characters. For example


    will rerun the most recent command that started with ls.

    Important variables for history are

  • HISTFILE—Points to the file holding the history of commands. By default, it is .bash_history in each user's home directory.

  • HISTSIZE—The number of entries to advocate each session.

  • HISTFILESIZE—Identifies the number of command history entries to subsist carried over from one session to another (letting you dash commands in this session that you ran in the previous one).

  • NOTE

    An internal alias for history, fc, moreover exists and can subsist used to recall and rerun commands as well.

    Command Aliasing

    Although a plethora of commands and utilities are available within the operating system and shell, you can create aliases that acquire more sense to you, or that abridge the number of characters you possess to type. For example, if you are close with working with the command line of Windows-based operating systems, you are accustomed to typing dir to note what files are there. A similar operation in Linux is practicable with ls -l. It is practicable to create an alias so that when you character dir, it is ls -l that runs using the following syntax:

    alias dir="ls -l"

    The syntax is always the alias followed by the actual command that will dash when the alias is entered, separated by the equal sign (=). In rare instances, you can secure away with not using the quotation marks around the aliased entry, but as a universal rule, they should always subsist used.


    For aliases to survive a session, they should subsist added to the .bashrc file within a user's home directory. If you attain not set aside them within a file that is executed upon login (thus re-creating them), the created aliases are lost when you log out.

    Other Features and Notes

    The Linux command line has a number of other features that should not subsist overlooked. Although they are not complicated enough to warrant a section of their own, it is useful to know of their existence:

  • When typing a command, you can press the Tab key after entering a few characters and the shell will attempt to complete the designation of the command you were typing.

  • The command-line history can subsist edited to alter commands before running them again. The default editor in bash is emacs, and in zsh it is vi. Editors are discussed later in this chapter, in the section "Working with vi."

  • When you press the Enter key, the shell first scans the command line and determines what elements it has been given by looking for whitespace. It next replaces wildcards with any apropos filenames. Following that, it strips gross quotes and substitutes variables. Lastly, it substitutes any embedded commands and then executes the entry.

  • The test utility can subsist used in conjunction with $? to test almost anything. For example, to note if a file exists and is readable, expend this combination:

  • test -r snapshot01.gif echo $?

    Complete syntax for gross the test options can subsist create by typing man test.

  • Two less-than signs (<<) are known simply as "here" and signify that processing is to wait until the string following them is given as a PS2 prompt on a line by itself. For example

  • cat << litter

    will accept input at a PS2 prompt until the string "litter" is entered on a line by itself.

  • SUSE Linux users nervous as Novell explores options | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Novell reportedly set aside itself on the market final week, leaving SUSE Linux Enterprise users unsure about the lot of that open source operating system and other Novell products.

    If the report in The Wall Street Journal is true, the bidding kicks off two months after Waltham, Mass-based Novell's board turned down Elliott Partners $2 billion buyout offer. At that time, Novell said the price was inadequate, and it would explore other options, including stock buy-backs, cash dividends and more alliances.

    A Novell spokesman provided no comment.

    In the low time, Novell final week released SUSE Linux Enterprise 11 Service Pack 1.

    Still, the questions around the vendor's prospects possess SUSE Linux users wondering what will become of the products they built their infrastructure on.

    David O'Berry, a consultant and CIO for South Carolina Department of Probation, became a Master Novell Certified Engineer in the 1990s and has watched the company struggle since then.

    "Novell is getting very close to irrelevance," O'Berry said. "It's no longer the battleship it once was, and the company seems to subsist very confused perquisite now. I'm frustrated at their want of capacity to execute on roadmaps and plans for the future."

    O'Berry runs about 50 SUSE Linux servers said he was relieved when Novell turned down Elliot's offer, but worries about the integrity of other potential buyers.

    "When you possess a consortium of private investors or private equity firms looking at a technology company, you know they scheme to split it apart and suck the cash out. They don't custody about the technology itself," O'Berry said. "I never thought I'd hear myself hiss this -- because I don't mediate the company that provides the needle should moreover provide the drugs - but someone fancy Microsoft or IBM needs to step in and consume over."

    Microsoft would subsist a analytic suitor, he said, because the company already collaborates with Novell and SUSE Linux interoperates with Microsoft management offerings.

    But other IT pros possess given up on SUSE; O'Berry said he is one of the few he knows silent using it in the field.

    David Reynolds, IT manager with the Rhode Island Blood heart in Providence, uses Linux but hasn't used SUSE Linux since 2003 and he moreover worked with Novell's flagship Netware network operating system.

    "[SUSE Linux is] a dying OS I'm afraid," Reynolds said. But, as a Linux fan, he wants someone to rescue Novell. "If someone can find value in Palm, there's hope for anyone I guess." (In late April, Hewlett Packard announced plans to buy Palm, the handheld device pioneer, for $1.2 billion.)

    But, since Novell's legacy industry has fallen on difficult times , the SUSE industry unit is its focus, so users shouldn't subsist nervous about losing it, said John Locke, President of the Seattle-based open source IT services solid Freelock Computing.

    "While I really don't mediate SUSE is at risk, the other Linux desktop software projects might be," Locke said.

    Novell is the steward of many Linux desktop applications, including Evolution, a Linux equivalent to Outlook; F-Spot, a photo manager; Tomboy, a sticky note application; Banshee, a music player/manager; and Mono, an open source implementation of the .NET platform.

    It moreover offers the collaboration product GroupWise, which competes with Microsoft Exchange.

    "Novell has done some tremendously necessary toil in making desktop Linux as estimable as or better than Windows and Mac, as well as doing a lot to promote interoperability," Locke said. "I would hope whoever purchases Novell sees the weight of continuing to advocate these projects -- the entire Linux community benefits from this work, and it's largely paid for by the success of SUSE."

    Let us know what you mediate about the story; email Bridget Botelho or supervene @BridgetBotelho on Twitter

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