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Test Code : 310-044
Test denomination : Sun Certified Network Administrator For Solaris 9
Vendor denomination : SUN
: 320 existent Questions
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Peter Gregory discusses person account configuration data; including, enhancing, and deleting person debts with Admintool and shell instructions; person shells; and consumer account commands in Solaris eight.
This pattern chapter is excerpted from solar certified system Administrator for Solaris eight examine guide, by Peter Gregory.This chapter is from the e-book
After finishing this chapter, you will live able to
determine the following login procedures: log into a equipment, note off of a device, and alter login passwords.
State the command used to determine which clients are at the minute logged into the system.
State the steps required to create user money owed on the local gear using the admintool utility.
State the command syntax to add, alter, or delete consumer/group accounts on the local gear with the useradd, groupadd, usermod, groupmod, userdel, or groupdel commands.
Given a consumer's login shell, list the shell initialization files used to installation a person's work environment at login.
to meet these aims, this chapter discusses:
person account configuration info;
including, editing, and deleting person debts with Admintool;
including, editing, and deleting person accounts with shell commands;
user shells; and
user account commands.
Three major files define the id of a consumer account: the password file, the shadow file, and the community file.The Password File
The password file carries the fundamental choosing counsel for each and every consumer allowed to entry a device. The gear vicinity of the password file is /etc/passwd. The structure of the password file is:username:password:uid:gid:gcos-container:home-dir:login-shell
These fields are:
username—the denomination that identifies the user account.
password—in Solaris 8 an "x" in this container implies that the corresponding shadow file incorporates the encrypted password string.
uid—the pleasing numerical identity assigned to the account. The maximum value for UID is 2147483647, but directors are advised to execute consume of values under 60,000 to live confident compatibility with consummate the tools that are used to manage money owed or parade counsel that comprises usernames.
gid—the fundamental (default) numerical group identity assigned to the account. enjoy the UID container, the optimum value for GID is 2147483647, however a optimum of 60,000 is preferable.
gcos-box—here is the user's actual identify (the time epoch "gcos-container" is the historical time epoch for this box).
home-dir—the listing where the consumer is positioned after logging in; this always incorporates the consumer's own info and directories.
login-shell—the initial shell it's started on behalf of the person upon logging in. If this sphere is blank, then /usr/bin/sh is used.
The password file can moreover live read by means of anyone on the system. There isn't any information that ought to live stored secret during this file. A sample password file feels enjoy this:root:x:0:1:tremendous-user:/:/sbin/sh daemon:x:1:1::/: bin:x:2:2::/usr/bin: sys:x:three:3::/: adm:x:four:four:Admin:/var/adm: lp:x:71:8:Line Printer Admin:/usr/spool/lp: uucp:x:5:5:uucp Admin:/usr/lib/uucp: nuucp:x:9:9:uucp Admin:/var/spool/uucppublic:/usr/lib/uucp/uucico listen:x:37:four:community Admin:/usr/net/nls: pete:x:a hundred:four:Peter Gregory:/export/home/pete:/bin/sh no person:x:60001:60001:no person:/:
Fields within the password file are delimited through colons (":"), and blank fields are signified by two adjoining colons ("::"). for example, live awake that the account identify sphere for daemon is blank—just two colons. also, daemon has no shell entry, so the final character for daemon is the colon delimiter.
The colon delimiter is additionally used in the shadow and neighborhood info, which can live mentioned in a later area.
it's viable and permissible to create more than one username within the password file with the identical UID. each username could endure its own entertaining password. besides the fact that children, tools reminiscent of ls and ps, when used with alternate options displaying username, will monitor the first username institute in the password file matching the UID.
When a new account is brought, changed, or eliminated with the useradd, usermod, or userdel instructions (that are mentioned later in this chapter), the device creates a backup copy of the password file, known as /and many others/opasswd.The Shadow File
The shadow file incorporates each person account's encrypted password, as well as specific per-account parameters governing "password growing older." The gear region of the shadow file is /etc/shadow. The format of the shadow file is:username:password:lastchg:min:max:warn:inactive:expire:flag
These fields are:
username—this is the identical username institute in the password file.
password—a 13-character encrypted password. If this container includes a lock string (e.g., "locked" or "NP"), the account is inaccessible; if blank, the account has no password.
lastchg—date of remaining password trade (actually the number of days between January 1, 1970, and the date the password changed into final modified).
min—minimum number of days allowed before the password can live modified.
max—optimum number of days allowed before the password expires.
warn—the variety of days just before expiration that the person is warned.
inactive—the number of days of situation of no activity allowed for the account before the account is automatically locked.
expire—the date when the user account is deactivated.
flag—a container reserved for future use.
The shadow file is limited in order that simplest the device administrator can read it. here's because an outsider might discharge a "dictionary attack," the consume of guessable passwords in an try and determine the passwords for one or extra accounts. classes that "crack" account passwords can live institute for this aim; consequently, the shadow file is not publicly readable.
A sample shadow file feels enjoy this:root:Pe0iQfp2LcAig:10528:::::: daemon:NP:6445:::::: bin:NP:6445:::::: sys:NP:6445:::::: adm:nIP3GPx2FIZYQ:11053:::::: lp:NP:6445:::::: uucp:NP:6445:::::: nuucp:NP:6445:::::: pay attention:*LK*::::::: pete:GSSUYVrJ8EKyA:11055:::::: no person:NP:6445::::::
notice that one of the crucial accounts in the instance shadow file endure "NP" ("no password") or "*LK*" (locked) in them. These are just two techniques of signifying that the money owed are locked in opposition t login. there's nothing really magic about "NP" or "*LK*"—they are only a manner of with ease showing that these debts are locked and going to stay that way. You may apportion other text in the password container to lucky your needs; for example, a helpdesk ticket quantity or a date.
When a user changes his or her password, the gear creates a backup replica of the shadow file, known as /and so forth/oshadow. This moreover occurs if root adjustments a consumer's password.
believe About It . . .
Why are encrypted passwords institute in /and many others/shadow and not in /and so on/passwd?
for a lot of instructions (ps, ls, and so forth.) to work correctly, /etc/passwd endure to live world readable. earlier than using /etc/shadow, consummate users' encrypted password strings were moreover publicly readable. This gave individuals with "password cracking" courses an opportunity to find other users' passwords. through relocating the encrypted password strings to /and so on/shadow (which can live study best by using root), the capacity to entry encrypted passwords is eliminated.
First, a bit of background. Older models of UNIX did not endure a shadow file; as an alternative, the encrypted password string become present in the password file, within the 2d sphere it truly is continually stuffed with an "x" in Solaris. Solaris nevertheless supports the encrypted password performing in the password file, besides the fact that children this is no longer a trustworthy option, for the judgement that the password file is publicly readable.
Older models of UNIX with out a shadow file additionally had no password-getting older capability.
The community suggestions device (NIS) subsystem was designed around the former shadow-much less structure; this explains why NIS has no shadow map, nor does it wait on password aging.The community File
The neighborhood file carries a listing of consummate the organizations on the equipment, along with every neighborhood's numeric groupid and a list of every of the usernames that are secondary individuals of each neighborhood. The locality of the group file is /and many others/group. The format of the group file is:groupname:password:gid:user-record
These fields are:
groupname—here's the denomination of the community.
password—here's an not obligatory password for the group.
gid—the exciting numerical identity assigned to the neighborhood. The highest value for GID is 2147483647, but directors are advised to execute consume of values below 60,000 to live confident compatibility with consummate the tools that are used to manage bills or screen guidance that includes neighborhood names.
person-listing—a comma-separated listing of users allowed within the neighborhood. These corporations are users' secondary community IDs.
A sample group file follows.root::0:root other::1: bin::2:root,bin,daemon sys::3:root,bin,sys,adm adm::four:root,adm,daemon uucp::5:root,uucp mail::6:root tty::7:root,tty,adm lp::8:root,lp,adm nuucp::9:root,nuucp personnel:GSSUYVrJ8EKyA:10:pete daemon::12:root,daemon sysadmin::14: nobody::60001: noaccess::60002: nogroup::65534:
word the password box within the group "workforce." businesses can live password included by way of placing a password string into the password container. live aware, although, that here is a totally manual system; there are not any tools supplied to Place the group password in for you.
hint: that you could engage a password string from the shadow file and consume the vi editor to splice it into the community file. The group password may live the equal because the account password from the shadow entry the Place you took the password string.
When a gaggle is password blanketed, anybody who is not a member of the group can live challenged for the neighborhood's password when they've entered the newgrp command.simple and Secondary Groupids
every user account has one fundamental groupid—this is the community defined within the password file. When a user logs on, here's his or her linked groupid.
each and every consumer account moreover has zero or extra secondary groupids. A consumer's secondary corporations are these group entries that comprehend the username in their lists of participants.
There are some effectual obstacles of groupids. for instance, every person account can moreover live in no greater than 16 organizations, and a line within the group file can't exceed 512 characters (together with the newline persona).
What happens in case you exigency to add so many individuals to a group that you just exceed the 512-personality entry limit? You effortlessly create another reproduction group entry—equal denomination and neighborhood quantity—and checklist the additional members there.
The basic and secondary groupids at once strike file system entry permissions, which is explored absolutely in Chapter 10.
feel About It . . .
What will live the outcome if a username were introduced to a bunch file entry when that neighborhood become the user's basic neighborhood?
The further entry would don't endure any impact, seeing that the person is already configured for the fundamental group membership within the /and so forth/passwd file.the foundation Account
the foundation account has special privileges on a system: Root is approved to study and write every file on a system, inspite of the file's possession and permission settings. system administrators log in with the basis account so they can discharge administrative projects.
the basis account receives its energy and privilege from the cost of its user number: Root is consumer quantity zero, described in the password file.
think About It . . .
What will live the results of changing an ordinary person's consumer quantity to zero? What talents might there live of inserting root's entry at the desist of the passwd file (as an alternative of the beginning)?
altering a proper consumer's user number to zero offers the consumer root privileges.
One capabilities of putting root on the desist of the password file is that if an interloper is capable of alter the password file to supply an extra user root privilege (see the primary query here), then output from instructions such as ls and ps would exhibit that different user because the proprietor of root tactics and data.
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