310-091 exam Dumps Source : Sun Certified Bus. Component Developer java EE Platform 5
Test Code : 310-091
Test title : Sun Certified Bus. Component Developer java EE Platform 5
Vendor title : SUN
: 305 actual Questions
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Utilities were gradual to undertake IoT networking due to long help cycles and interoperability complexities across several functions with differing network needs. Yet, more and more, they hear their utility customers emphasize the necessity to simplify and wait on tremendous-scale out of doors networks that deal with an array of solutions from smart metering and distribution automation, to require response and renewable power integration.
At DistribuTECH, they shared how Cisco’s carrying on with innovation is meeting this challenge. They showcased their full portfolio of utility commerce solutions that embrace Cisco Resilient Mesh and their FAN routers, goal-developed to help interoperability. And they introduced that Cisco is the primary to achieve Wi-solar box belt network (FAN) 1.0 interoperability certification for their IR509 Cisco Resilient Mesh industrial router.
Why is interoperability so important? Let’s buy a look.
The challenge of interoperability
typically, utilities and smart cities ought to fulfill various networking utilize cases, with solutions from numerous providers, managed via diverse operations organizations and even halt shoppers. as an instance, an influence utility might also utilize sensible grid, advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) and Distribution Automation (DA) networks. Interoperability becomes even more considerable in the event that they necessity to combine distributed power resources (DER), which might consist of solutions the condition they don’t possess direct control, corresponding to domestic photo voltaic, electric vehicle charging stations, or sensible highway lights.
First technology smart grid AMI and DA networks frequently used proprietary mesh networking technologies, partly IP-enabled and the utilize of proprietary security protocols. but that usually meant safety become much less scrutinized, much less potent, and can possess had unknown vulnerabilities. without enough interoperability, utilities had been compelled to first opt for a network infrastructure vendor, after which require everyone of their grid device carriers (e.g., for line sensors, meters, cap bank controllers) to integrate/certify communication modules from that community vendor.
The result is an extremely inefficient, time- and price-intensive procedure for everybody concerned. A utility customarily has to wait a long time until the combination and container compliance is done for everyone of the grid gadgets earlier than they can deploy and utilize the network simply. in the meantime, they could continue to dash distinctive networks each with distinctive communication technologies for diverse functions (e.g., line sensor vs. volt-var handle) and proceed to deal with high preservation cost, complexity, and fragility of their systems.
Cisco IoT options purpose to reduce interoperability complexities with intent-based networking, and assist velocity implementation by bringing partners collectively through their IoT DevNet software.
building relaxed and professional interoperability
whereas security and reliability are commandeer of intellect for their utility valued clientele, interoperability tends to buy a lower back seat in conversations. Yet interoperability is vital for persisted extend in IoT – and that’s where they are available. Cisco is leading the pack with their IR509 router, the first with Wi-sun FAN 1.0 interoperability certification.
Wi-sun FAN 1.0 gives for primary interoperability of instruments for community discovery, affiliation, authentication, key trade and rotation, encryption, RPL routing, and IPv6 handle assignment. Wi-sun compliance is gaining consideration, and that has both network carriers and device providers scrambling to gain licensed. With utilities enabling sensible metropolis infrastructures fancy street lighting fixtures, EV charging, and sensible parking, a big number of vendors and functions are converging on the same community, making wider adoption of Wi-solar inevitable.
meanwhile, as Wi-sun is evolving towards FAN 2.0 requisites, Cisco is conserving tempo to be equipped. We’re continuing to travail on advanced elements such as time distribution, adaptive information fee and modulation, peer-to-peer verbal exchange, QoS and snug certificates re-enrollment.
Interoperability is a vital element in achieving IoT success – and we’ll gain you there.
traditionally, VERITAS extent manager (VxVM) has been the extent manager of alternative for shared storage in commercial enterprise-stage configurations. listed here, a free and easy-to-use alternative, Solaris volume manager application, which is a component of the Solaris 9 operating atmosphere (Solaris 9 OE) is explored. This ripen product offers identical functionality to VxVM. additionally, it is tightly integrated into the solar Cluster three.0 software framework and, hence, should be considered to be the quantity manager of preference for shared storage in this environment.
this text turned into up to date on may also 23, 2003.Like this article? They recommend
With sun™ Cluster three.0 utility, you could utilize two quantity managers: VERITAS volume manager (VxVM) software, and sun's Solaris™ extent manager utility, which turned into up to now referred to as Solstice DiskSuite™ software.
traditionally, VxVM has been the volume supervisor of alternative for shared storage in enterprise-degree configurations. during this solar BluePrints™ on-line article, they narrate a free and simple-to-use alternative, Solaris extent supervisor software, which is a fraction of the Solaris™ 9 operating ambiance (Solaris 9 OE). This ripen product offers similar functionality to VxVM. in addition, it's tightly built-in into the solar Cluster three.0 software framework and, therefore, may silent be regarded to be the extent manager of option for shared storage during this environment. it would be preeminent that Solaris quantity manager software can't be used to supply volume administration for Oracle RAC/OPS clusters.
To assist their recommendation to fabricate utilize of Solaris extent supervisor software, they existing right here subject matters:
"using Solaris volume supervisor utility With solar Cluster 3.0 Framework" on web page 2 explains how Solaris volume supervisor software functions in a solar Cluster three.0 atmosphere.
"Configuring Solaris volume supervisor application in the solar Cluster three.0 ambiance" on web page 10 offers a dash booklet and a reference implementation for creating disksets and volumes (metadevices)1 in a solar Cluster three.0 framework.
"advantages of the usage of Solaris extent manager utility in a sun Cluster 3.0 atmosphere" on page 15 summarizes the merits of using Solaris volume supervisor utility for shared storage in a sun Cluster three.0 environment.
The techniques offered listed here are in keeping with using the Solaris 9 OE and sun Cluster 3.0 supersede three utility.
earlier than they present their reference configuration, they narrate some ideas to champion you bethink how Solaris quantity manager utility features in a sun Cluster three.0 ambiance. chiefly, they headquarters of attention on here topics:
sun Cluster application's utilize of DID (disk id) devices to supply a special and consistent outfit tree on everyone cluster nodes.
Solaris volume manager utility's utilize of disksets, which enable disks and volumes to be shared amongst different nodes, and the diskset's illustration in the cluster called a device community.
the utilize of mediators to extend the tight reproduction quorum (which is different from the cluster quorum) rule of Solaris quantity supervisor software, and to allow clusters to role in the adventure of specific dissimilar disasters.
The utilize of slushy partitions and the mdmonitord daemon with Solaris quantity supervisor application. whereas these accessories are not concerning the software's utilize in a sun Cluster ambiance, they should silent be regarded a fraction of any decent configuration.
With sun Cluster 3.0 software, it is not integral to possess an identical hardware configuration on everyone nodes. however, several configurations may additionally lead to distinctive analytic Solaris OE names on each node. accept as uniform with a cluster the condition one node has a storage array connected on a host bus adapter (HBA) in the first peripheral fraction interconnect (PCI) slot. On the different node, the array is connected to an HBA within the 2nd slot. A shared disk not off course 30 might also gyrate out to be being called /dev/rdsk/c1t30d0 on the first node and as /dev/rdsk/c2t30d0 on the different node. in this case, the actual Solaris OE gadget route is several on each node and it is probably going that the main-minor quantity blend is different, as neatly.
In a non-clustered environment, Solaris quantity supervisor software makes utilize of the analytic Solaris OE names as constructing blocks for volumes. besides the fact that children, in a clustered ambiance, the extent definitions are accessible on the entire nodes and will, hence, be constant; the title and the essential/minor numbers should silent be constant across the entire nodes. sun Cluster utility offers a framework of consistent and intellectual disk names and foremost/minor number combos. Such names are created in case you set up the cluster and they are referred to as DID names. They can be present in /dev/did/rdsk and /dev/did/dsk and are instantly synchronized on the cluster nodes such that the names and the principal/minor numbers are consistent between nodes. solar Cluster three.0 uses the device identification of the disks to guarantee that the same identify exists for a given disk in the cluster.
all the time utilize DID names when referring to disk drives to create disksets and volumes with Solaris volume supervisor software in a solar Cluster 3.0 ambiance.using Disksets to partake Disks and Volumes among Nodes
Disksets, which might be a element of Solaris volume manager, are used to rescue the facts within a solar Cluster ambiance.
On everyone nodes, native condition database replicas possess to be created. These local condition database replicas embrace configuration counsel for in the neighborhood created volumes. as an example, volumes that are a fraction of the mirrors on the boot disk. local condition database replicas also embrace tips about disksets that are created in the cluster: The identify of the set, the names2 of the hosts that can personal the set, the disks in it and even if they possess got a replica on them and, if configured, the mediator hosts. here is an considerable inequity between Solaris quantity manager utility and VxVM, because in VxVM, each diskgroup is self-contained: every disk in the community contains the group to which it belongs and the host that at the jiffy owns the community. If the final disk in a VxVM diskgroup is deleted, the neighborhood is deleted through definition.
At anybody time, a diskset has a separate host that has entry to it. The node that has entry is deemed to be the owner of the diskset and the action of getting ownership is known as "take" and the action of relinquishing ownership is called "unlock." In VxVM phrases, the take/release of a diskset are the import/export of a diskgroup. The proprietor of a diskset is called the present basic of that diskset. This capacity that although more nodes may also be connected to the diskset and may potentially buy the diskset upon failure of the primary node, just one node can simply carry out input/output (I/O) to the volumes in the diskset. The time period shared storage merits further rationalization. They don't look to be shared within the sustain that each one nodes entry the disks simultaneously, however in the sustain that distinctive nodes are potential primaries for the set.
The advent of disksets involves three steps. First, a diskset receives a title and a first-rate host. This motion creates an entry for the diskset in the native condition database of that host. whereas Solaris volume supervisor makes it practicable for for a maximum of eight hosts, solar Cluster (at this time) handiest supports as much as four hosts. The rpc.metad daemon on the first node contacts the rpc.metad daemon on the second host, instructing it to create an entry for the diskset in the 2d host's native condition database.
Now, disks can be introduced to the diskset. once again, the fundamental hosts rpc.metad daemon will contact the 2nd host in order that the local condition databases on both nodes embrace the same guidance.
notice that you can add disks to any node that may potentially personal the diskset and the request is forwarded (proxied) to the fundamental node. here is carried out throughout the rpc.metacld daemon, which permits you to administer disksets from any cluster node. Neither rpc.metad and rpc.metacld may silent be hardened out of a cluster that's using Solaris quantity supervisor application as a result of they are both measure to the operation of the Solaris quantity manager software components.
for those who add a brand fresh disk to a disk set, Solaris extent manager utility tests the disk layout and, if necessary, repartitions the disk to fabricate confident that the disk has an appropriately configured slice 7 with satisfactory house for a condition database duplicate. The specific dimension of slice 7 is contingent upon the disk geometry, however it could be a minimum of four Mbytes, and probably nearer to six Mbytes (counting on the condition the cylinder boundaries lie).
The minimal size for slice seven will practicable change in the future, in accordance with a entire lot of factors, together with the dimension of the condition database duplicate and tips to be stored within the condition database duplicate.
for utilize in disk units, disks ought to possess a slice seven that meets specific criteria:
starts at sector 0
contains adequate house for disk label and condition database replicas
can't be mounted
doesn't overlap with some other slices, including slice two
If the present partition desk doesn't meet these standards, Solaris volume supervisor application will repartition the disk. A small element of every obligate is reserved in slice 7 to be used by Solaris quantity manager utility. The the leisure of the space on every power is positioned into slice 0. Any current statistics on the disks is lost with the aid of repartitioning.
After you add a drive to a disk set, you can also repartition it as necessary, with the exception that slice 7 isn't altered in any manner.the usage of device companies to maneuver Disks and Volumes
sun Cluster three.0 software provides automatic exporting and taking of Solaris extent manager disksets and VxVM diskgroups. to accomplish this, you necessity to establish the diskset or diskgroup to the cluster. For each outfit (disk, tape, Solaris quantity supervisor diskset, or VxVM diskgroup) that may silent be managed through the cluster, fabricate confident that there is an entry in the cluster configuration repository.
When a diskset or diskgroup is common to the cluster, it's referred to as a implement community. a device neighborhood is an entry in the cluster repository that defines extra homes for the diskgroup or diskset. a implement neighborhood can possess right here traits:
A node record that corresponds to the node record defined in the diskset.
A favorite node the condition the cluster attempts to convey the device group online when the cluster boots. This with no misfortune aptitude that after everyone cluster nodes are booted at the equal time, the diskset is taken by its favourite node.
A failback policy, that if set to real, migrates the disk set to the favored node if the node is online. If the preferred node joins the cluster later, it'll gyrate into the owner of the diskset (that is, the diskset will change from the node that presently owns it to the preferred node).
solar Cluster software also provides huge failure fencing mechanisms to sojourn away from facts entry via unauthorized nodes during gadget neighborhood transitions.
one of the most essential advantages of the utilize of Solaris extent manager software in a solar Cluster three.0 environment is that the introduction and deletion of gadget agencies does not involve extra administration. if you create or delete a diskset with Solaris quantity supervisor utility commands, the cluster framework is immediately notified that it should create or delete a corresponding entry in the Cluster Configuration repository. which you can additionally manually trade the preferred node and failback policy with medium cluster interfaces.the utilize of Mediators to control replica Quorum Votes
Disksets possess their personal replicas, that are added to a disk when the disk is do into the diskset, given that the highest variety of replicas has now not been handed (50). it's viable to manually administer these replicas in the course of the metadb command, but commonly this is no longer required. The should carry out so is mentioned within the subsequent section. Replicas should be evenly dispensed throughout the storage enclosures that comprise the disks, and they should silent be evenly dispensed across the disks on a per-disk-controller basis. In an fabulous ambiance, this distribution potential that anybody failure in the storage (disk, controller, or storage enclosure) does not repercussion the operation of Solaris extent supervisor application.
In a actual configuration that has an excellent number of storage enclosures, the necessity of half of the storage enclosures (as an example, due to power loss) leaves most effective 50 p.c of the diskset replicas obtainable. while the diskset is owned with the aid of a node, this will now not create a problem. youngsters, if the diskset is released, on a subsequent take, the replicas will be marked as being stale since the reproduction quorum of enhanced than 50 p.c shouldn't possess been reached. This capability that everyone the information on the diskset will be study-most effective, and operator intervention may be required. If, at any element, the number of accessible replicas for either a diskset or the native ones falls below 50 %, the node will abort itself to maintain records integrity.
To boost this function, that you may configure a group to possess mediators. Mediators are hosts that may import [take] a diskset, and, when required, they deliver an further vote when a quorum vote is required (for instance, on a diskset import [take]). To assist the duplicate quorum requirement, mediators even possess a quorum requirement that both more suitable than 50 percent of them can be found, or the obtainable mediators are marked as being up to this point, this skill the mediator is golden and is marked as such. Mediators, whether they are golden or not, are handiest used when a diskset is taken. If the mediators are golden, and one of the vital nodes is rebooted, when it begins up, the mediators on it'll gain the current condition from the node that remains in the cluster. youngsters, if everyone nodes in the cluster are rebooted when the mediators are golden, on startup, the mediators are usually not golden and operator intervention should be required to buy possession of the diskset. The specific mediator counsel is held in the rpc.metamedd(1M) daemon.
as an instance, if there are two hosts (node1 and node2) and two storage enclosures (pack1 and pack2), diskset replicas are allotted evenly between pack1 and pack2, and node1 owns the diskset. If pack1 dies, simplest 50 percent of diskset replicas are available and the mediators on both hosts are marked as golden. If node1 now dies, node2 can import [take] the diskset as a result of 50 % of the diskset replicas are available and the mediator on node2 is golden. If mediators were not configured, node2 won't possess been capable of import [take] the diskset with out operator intervention.
Mediators carry out not, despite the fact, protect towards simultaneous disasters. If both pack1 and node1 fail on the identical time, the mediator on node2 carry out not necessity been marked as golden and there are not an additional vote for the diskset duplicate quorum, making operator intervention essential. since the nodes should be on an uninterrupted vigour provide (UPS), which aptitude the mediators should possess enough time to be marked as golden, this class of failure is not going.explanations to Manually alternate the reproduction Allocation within a Diskset
As alluded to in the outdated paragraph, it's feasible, even with mediators configured, to require administrator intervention below confident failure eventualities. One such condition of affairs is that of a two scope cluster. that is, each and every scope has one node and one storage device. If a scope fails, then any diskset that became owned by pass of the node in that scope will require sheperd intervention. On the surviving node, the administrator will deserve to buy the set using the metaset or scswitch command and remove the replicas that are marked as errored. When here's carried out, the diskset must be released and retaken so it may well benefit write entry to the configured metadevices.
it is viable, through manually moving the replicas about, that using sheperd intervention will also be minimized. This will also be finished by means of "weighting" one scope over the different, such that if the non-weighted scope fails, then the eventual scope can be in a position to buy the diskset. If the "weighted" scope fails, sheperd intervention is required. To "weight" a room, add extra replicas to the disks that dwell within the room, or delete replicas on the disks that carry out not sojourn in that room.the usage of smooth Partitions as a basis for File programs
After adding a disk to a diskset, that you can adjust the partition design, it truly is spoil up the default slice 0 and spread the house between the slices (together with slice 0). If slice 7 contains a duplicate, leave it by myself to preclude corrupting the replica on it. as a result of Solaris extent supervisor software supports fine partitioning, they insinuate that you leave slice 0 untouched.
believe a gentle partition as a subdivision of a physical Solaris OE slice or as a subdivision of a replicate, redundant array of unbiased disks (RAID) 5, or striped extent. The variety of fine partitions that you would be able to create is proscribed by pass of the dimension of the underlying machine and by the number of practicable volumes (nmd, as described in /kernel/drv/md.conf). The default variety of practicable volumes is 128. word that everyone fine partitions created on a separate diskset are fraction of one diskset and cannot be independently primaried to diverse nodes.
soft partitions are composed of a sequence of extents that are located at capricious places on the underlying media. The locations are immediately decided by the utility at initialization time. it is practicable to manually set these areas, but it surely is not informed for universal every day administration. places should silent be manually set only during recovery situations where the metarecover (1M) command is insufficient.
that you could create and utilize smooth partitions in two methods:
Create them on commandeer of a actual disk slice and utilize them as edifice blocks for mirrors or RAID 5 volumes, just as you would utilize a physical slice.
Create them on suitable of a replicate or RAID 5 volume.
In their illustration, they utilize the 2nd method. They believe this the foremost solution for two reasons:
Sizing and resizing gentle partitions is proscribed simplest through the measurement of the underlying device. If the underlying device is a Solaris OE slice, it isn't always practicable to extend the size of the fine partition while retaining the file gadget on the slice intact. although, it is tons simpler to grow a Solaris volume supervisor application extent, and then grow the fine partition on precise of it.
growing distinctive gentle partitions on accurate of a big mirrored extent means that you can utilize the Solaris quantity supervisor utility namespace greater effectively and consistently. accept as uniform with the following example: You create one giant mirror (d2) on desirable of two submirrors (d0 and d1). On accurate of d2, you create gentle partitions d10, d11, d12, and so on. On these soft partitions, you create file programs. if you did it the wrong pass round, you may necessity to create soft partitions d10, d11, d12, and so forth, in addition to corresponding smooth partitions on the other disks d20, d21, d22, and so on. Then, you could possess to create the stripes to fabricate utilize of as submirrors on uniform of the tender partitions and finally create the mirrors. during this condition of affairs, you may possess used twice as many smooth partitions names and, hence, greater of the Solaris extent manager application namespace.
whereas they insinuate the 2nd method, suffer in mind that an bar of this routine is that you will should operate a complete disk resync if the disk fails, while the first strategy would handiest require a resync of the defined smooth partitions.
The mdmonitord daemon without delay fails volumes that possess faulty disk components. It does this by using probing configured volumes, together with volumes in disksets that are at present owned with the aid of the node where the daemon runs (word that the daemon runs on everyone of the nodes in a cluster). The probe is an simple open(2) of the desirable degree extent that motives the Solaris volume supervisor software kernel components to open underlying instruments. The probe at eventual factors the actual disk device to open. If the disk has failed, the probe will fail everyone the approach again up the chain, and the daemon can buy the acceptable motion.
If the extent is a mirror, the reflect should be in utilize for the submirror's element to be marked as errored. (that is, a different application ought to possess it open, for example, if it has a established file device on it). If the reflect isn't open, the daemon experiences an mistake and performs no other action to preclude unrequired resyncs for unused mirrors.
within the case of a RAID5 device, the device fails commandeer away as a result of there is not as a lot redundancy as there's in a mirror (a 2nd failure within the RAID5 gadget makes the gadget inoperable), and it is better to possess the can suffuse of the failure instantly.
The mdmonitord daemon has two modes of operation: interrupt mode and occasional probing mode.
In interrupt mode, the daemon waits for disk failure events. If the daemon detects a failure, it probes the configured volumes as up to now described. here is the default conduct.
In occasional probing mode, which you could specify confident time intervals for the daemon to operate probes by giving the daemon the -t option, followed by the number of seconds between each probe. The daemon also waits for disk failure events.
The mdmonitord daemon is helpful in case your outfit consists of volumes that are accessed infrequently. devoid of the daemon, a disk failure can travel ignored for rather a while, except you manually check the configuration with the metastat -i command. This might not be a problem at the start sight, but can be catastrophic if the failed disk is the cluster's quorum disk, or if an entire storage array has failed. These eventualities are described as follows:
If a quorum disk fails and, consequently, a node fails, cluster operation is critically impaired. They insinuate that you just do the quorum disk in a diskset and fabricate it fraction of a submirror so it's monitored by the mdmonitord daemon. counting on the usage of the replicate, you could want to faith configuring the mdmonitord daemon to carry out timed probes. If the reflect is well used, it truly is, if it has plenty of I/O going to it, you might now not want this.
If mediators are configured, they give added votes to guarantee duplicate quorum. in addition, if, after an array fails, the final replicas are up to date, the mediators are set to golden. Now, if a node is misplaced, the golden status on the remaining node permits Solaris extent manager software to proceed updating the replicas with out intervention. the utilize of the mdmonitord daemon to consistently determine the reputation of volumes increases the chance of duplicate updates after a storage array fails.
If a number and disk fail on the same time then the mediators don't look to be going to be golden and you may endure an outage. youngsters if the host is u.s.covered (such that it's up for a duration of time earlier than dash fails) then the mdmonitord could occasions an supersede to the replicas to buy condition which potential a mediator update and if the node then can fail (united states of americahas gone away) but the mediator will now be golden and they continue to exist the failure, which they may now possess achieved earlier than. here's reasonably a nook case however does expose that the mdmonitord can be used to deliver a stronger uptime.
Eclipse GlassFish 5.1 has been released, and in contrast to the modest boost in version quantity might indicate, this definitely marks a major milestone — no longer only for the GlassFish mission itself, but for Java EE and relocating Jakarta EE ahead much more.a glance on the heritage of GlassFish
GlassFish goes back a protracted means. It began with the Kiva commercial enterprise Server, a Java application server that was launched in January 1996 (for comparison, Java 1.0 itself was also released in that month!)
A 12 months later, Netscape received Kiva, and the Kiva commercial enterprise Server grew to be referred to as Netscape software Server (NAS), which had its personal pre-J2EE proprietary Java net APIs (such as the AppLogic framework, which turned into fancy Servlets and DAE for DB access). NAS 2.1, which became obtainable from early 1998, become a very prevalent version. utility servers possess been reasonably costly back then, as Netscape software Server became around $35,000 per CPU.
In 1999, solar and Netscape (later AOL) formed an alliance, and Netscape utility Server 4, which turned into released later that yr, blanketed assist for an early version of J2EE (Servlets, EJBs, JSPs, and JDBC). for instance, JSP assist became for the early version 0.ninety two.
Netscape application Server 4 changed into chosen by pass of the alliance to continue progress on as a substitute of merging it with the NetDynamics 5.01 application server solar had received previous. The title turned into as soon as again modified, this time into iPlanet utility Server (iAS). It changed into fraction of the iPlanet suite of products jointly developed via sun and AOL (Netscape).
iAS edition 6, from across the year 2000, become a J2EE 1.2-appropriate server, aiding things comparable to Servlets 2.2, EJB 1.1, JSP 1.1 (in accordance with Jasper), and JTA 1.0 (in keeping with the Encina transaction video display).
For edition 7, the identify become once once more changed, now in full to "Stanford college network Open net atmosphere utility Server," aka sun ONE software Server (S1AS, or SOAS). S1AS 7 turned into made attainable for no cost when it turned into launched in late 2002, even though it became nonetheless closed supply. It included a modified Tomcat four, which has a long history as neatly. version 8 as soon as once more noticed a reputation alternate, when it grew to be sun Java outfit utility Server (SJSAS) eight, which become J2EE 1.four appropriate. around this time period, sun had additionally split off a derived edition known as the J2EE SDK (Reference Implementation, or RI), which was very nearly the core of the entire software server, but afterward, this became the Platform version of SJSAS and the sheer RI changed into only made attainable for TCK testing.Open-source GlassFish project
In 2005, the open-supply GlassFish challenge became everyone started, which become essentially shaped by using the donation of the supply code for SJSAS 9 through solar and the TopLink persistence supply code by using Oracle (for the fresh JPA implementation in EE 5). In may additionally 2006, the Java EE 5-compatible and entirely open-supply GlassFish 1.0 turned into released. After some intermediate versions, an colossal re-architectured edition of GlassFish become launched in December 2009, GlassFish 3.0. within the GlassFish supply code internally, there are nevertheless many references to "V3," which refers to this foremost milestone.Payara Server Is Born
After Oracle bought solar, it nonetheless launched a edition three.1 of GlassFish in early 2011 with production points reminiscent of clustering and cargo balancing, however after that release, it acquired relatively silent. In November 2013, Oracle announced they might nonetheless champion the open source GlassFish but ended commercial assist. In uniform open-source vogue, this led to the Payara Server, which begun as a fork of GlassFish and delivered commercial help, measure computer virus fixes, and medium element updates. GlassFish four became launched to sheperd Java EE 7, but from a server architecture aspect of view, it turned into a comparatively minor update, with broadly speaking the components being up-to-date to their EE 7 models.GlassFish Is Transferred to the Eclipse basis
Late 2015/early 2016, it becomes quieter on the GlassFish entrance, and several articles regarded questioning Oracle's hobby in Java EE, principally GlassFish. In August 2017, Oracle certainly announced that they did not necessity to be basically accountable for Java EE and GlassFish anymore. a Little later, Oracle announced that Java EE and everyone of the GlassFish code (GlassFish itself and everyone its constituent components) can be transferred to the Eclipse foundation. The title of the task would become "EE4J," and in early 2018, the source code starts transferring to the "eclipse-ee4j" repo on GitHub.
As a fraction of the deal between Oracle and Eclipse, it has determined to release GlassFish 5.1, which is absolutely developed by the Eclipse organization from the transferred and relicensed accessories that is fully Java EE 8 certified.Payara functions Involvement
Altogether, this transfer has taken lots of work. Payara functions (the commerce as well as people working for Payara) possess supported this system from its early ranges. It included aid from the preparatory cleaning of a couple of projects for the vetting of the switch. for example, within the Mojarra venture, there become reasonably a bit of of historic code and different artifacts that were eliminated one after the other, as they would had been complicated to vet. After the naked supply code switch, several alterations possess been vital to fabricate the tasks cleanly build and later on to fabricate them travail on the Eclipse Jenkins instances (https://jenkins.eclipse.org). For this to happen, a huge variety of jobs needed to be created, for each undertaking to build, stage, and at eventual to liberate them to Maven principal. The fraction tracker at https://wiki.eclipse.org/Eclipse_GlassFish_5.1_Components_Release_Tracker offers some thought of which initiatives possess been involved.
Payara certainly contributed to the switch of the following API projects and their linked implementations:
Altogether, it changed into a very salubrious journey engaged on this switch, however now and then, it become also rather slightly of labor, primarily when, within the beginning, it wasn't clear in any respect how to proceed with confident issues.
Now, besides the fact that children, this travail is at eventual carried out! GlassFish is fully constructed on the Eclipse infrastructure, and brand fresh liberate through Eclipse marks one more principal step in GlassFish's lengthy adventure, beginning at Kiva, passing via NetScape, growing to be up at solar, passing via Oracle, and now landing at Eclipse.One Step closer to Jakarta EE 9
but it's not most effective about GlassFish itself. With this switch achieved, and each GlassFish and its accessories attainable by pass of the Jakarta Maven coordinates, we're one main step nearer to beginning the travail for Jakarta EE 9.
GlassFish 5.1 may also be downloaded here: https://projects.eclipse.org/projects/ee4j.glassfish/downloads
The implementation add-ons can be institute from the org.glassfish Maven coordinates as earlier than: https://repo1.maven.org/maven2/org/glassfish/leading/distributions/glassfish/5.1.0
The API jars now reside below the brand fresh Jakarta Maven coordinates: https://repo1.maven.org/maven2/jakarta/
We at Payara would fancy to thank everyone partners from Jakarta EE who helped with the transfer. particular thanks travel to Dmitry Kornilov for his weariless amount of wait on and information each time they acquired stuck on whatever thing. Thanks, Dmitry!
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Eclipse GlassFish 5.1 has been released, and unlike the modest extend in version number might suggest, this truly marks a major milestone — not just for the GlassFish project itself, but for Java EE and moving Jakarta EE forward even more.A contemplate at the History of GlassFish
GlassFish goes back a long way. It started with the Kiva Enterprise Server, a Java application server that was released in January 1996 (for comparison, Java 1.0 itself was also released in that month!)
A year later, Netscape acquired Kiva, and the Kiva Enterprise Server became known as Netscape Application Server (NAS), which had its own pre-J2EE proprietary Java web APIs (such as the AppLogic framework, which was fancy Servlets and DAE for DB access). NAS 2.1, which was available from early 1998, was a particularly common version. Application servers were quite pricey back then, as Netscape Application Server was around $35,000 per CPU.
In 1999, Sun and Netscape (later AOL) formed an alliance, and Netscape Application Server 4, which was released later that year, included champion for an early version of J2EE (Servlets, EJBs, JSPs, and JDBC). For example, JSP champion was for the early version 0.92.
Netscape Application Server 4 was chosen by the alliance to continue progress on instead of merging it with the NetDynamics 5.01 application server Sun had acquired earlier. The title was once again changed, this time into iPlanet Application Server (iAS). It was fraction of the iPlanet suite of products jointly developed by Sun and AOL (Netscape).
iAS Version 6, from around the year 2000, was a J2EE 1.2-compatible server, supporting things such as Servlets 2.2, EJB 1.1, JSP 1.1 (based on Jasper), and JTA 1.0 (based on the Encina transaction monitor).
For version 7, the title was once again changed, now in full to "Stanford University Network Open Net Environment Application Server," aka Sun ONE Application Server (S1AS, or SOAS). S1AS 7 was made available for no cost when it was released in late 2002, although it was silent closed source. It included a modified Tomcat 4, which has a long history as well. Version 8 once again saw a title change, when it became Sun Java System Application Server (SJSAS) 8, which was J2EE 1.4 compatible. Around this time period, Sun had also split off a derived version called the J2EE SDK (Reference Implementation, or RI), which was essentially the core of the full application server, but later on, this became the Platform Edition of SJSAS and the sheer RI was only made available for TCK testing.Open-Source GlassFish Project
In 2005, the open-source GlassFish project was started, which was essentially formed by the donation of the source code for SJSAS 9 by Sun and the TopLink persistence source code by Oracle (for the fresh JPA implementation in EE 5). In May 2006, the Java EE 5-compatible and fully open-source GlassFish 1.0 was released. After some intermediate versions, a major re-architectured version of GlassFish was released in December 2009, GlassFish 3.0. In the GlassFish source code internally, there are silent many references to "V3," which refers to this major milestone.Payara Server Is Born
After Oracle acquired Sun, it silent released a version 3.1 of GlassFish in early 2011 with production features such as clustering and load balancing, but after that release, it got relatively silent. In November 2013, Oracle announced they would silent champion the open source GlassFish but ended commercial support. In uniform open-source fashion, this led to the Payara Server, which started as a fork of GlassFish and added commercial support, regular bug fixes, and regular component updates. GlassFish 4 was released to champion Java EE 7, but from a server architecture point of view, it was a relatively minor update, with mostly the components being updated to their EE 7 versions.GlassFish Is Transferred to the Eclipse Foundation
Late 2015/early 2016, it becomes quieter on the GlassFish front, and several articles appeared questioning Oracle's interest in Java EE, specifically GlassFish. In August 2017, Oracle indeed announced that they did not want to be primarily accountable for Java EE and GlassFish anymore. A Little later, Oracle announced that Java EE and everyone the GlassFish code (GlassFish itself and everyone its constituent components) will be transferred to the Eclipse Foundation. The title of the project would become "EE4J," and in early 2018, the source code starts transferring to the "eclipse-ee4j" repo on GitHub.
As fraction of the deal between Oracle and Eclipse, it has decided to release GlassFish 5.1, which is completely built by the Eclipse organization from the transferred and relicensed components that is fully Java EE 8 certified.Payara Services Involvement
Altogether, this transfer has taken a lot of work. Payara Services (the company as well as individuals working for Payara) possess supported this process from its early stages. It included wait on from the initial cleaning of several projects for the vetting of the transfer. For instance, in the Mojarra project, there was quite a bit of ancient code and other artifacts that were removed one by one, as they would possess been difficult to vet. After the bare source code transfer, several adjustments were needed to fabricate the projects cleanly build and later on to fabricate them travail on the Eclipse Jenkins instances (https://jenkins.eclipse.org). For this to happen, a big number of jobs had to be created, for each project to build, stage, and finally to release them to Maven central. The component tracker at https://wiki.eclipse.org/Eclipse_GlassFish_5.1_Components_Release_Tracker gives some plan of which projects were involved.
Payara specifically contributed to the transfer of the following API projects and their associated implementations:
Altogether, it was a remarkable sustain working on this transfer, but at times, it was also quite a bit of work, especially when, in the beginning, it wasn't clear at everyone how to proceed with confident things.
Now, however, this travail is finally done! GlassFish is fully built on the Eclipse infrastructure, and today's release by Eclipse marks another major step in GlassFish's long journey, starting at Kiva, passing through NetScape, growing up at Sun, passing through Oracle, and now landing at Eclipse.One Step Closer to Jakarta EE 9
But it's not only about GlassFish itself. With this transfer completed, and both GlassFish and its components available via the Jakarta Maven coordinates, we are one major step closer to starting the travail for Jakarta EE 9.
GlassFish 5.1 can be downloaded here: https://projects.eclipse.org/projects/ee4j.glassfish/downloads
The implementation components are available from the org.glassfish Maven coordinates as before: https://repo1.maven.org/maven2/org/glassfish/main/distributions/glassfish/5.1.0
The API jars now live under the fresh Jakarta Maven coordinates: https://repo1.maven.org/maven2/jakarta/
We at Payara would fancy to thank everyone partners from Jakarta EE who helped with the transfer. Special thanks travel to Dmitry Kornilov for his weariless amount of wait on and recommendation whenever they got stuck on something. Thanks, Dmitry!
I'm not confident what I expected when I finally connected with Gartner Vice President and Distinguished Analyst Anne Thomas eventual week to contend a research note she co-authored that took massive fire from critics in the enterprise Java community. But her chipper, glad-to-help-out response to my interview request shouldn't possess surprised me; in the roughly two decades since they first met, I've institute Thomas to be a responsive and attentive industry watcher with a relatively thick hide.
"It's my job to be controversial if that's what's needed," Thomas told me, "to fabricate people buy a step back and contemplate at what's really going on."
What did dumbfound me was Thomas's contention that she and her critics are essentially on the same page.Thomas wrote the report ("Market sheperd for Application Platforms") with contributing analyst Aashish Gupta. In it the authors asserted, among other things, that Java EE has not kept pace with architectural trends and digital commerce initiatives, that Java developers are demonstrating a clear preference for lightweight frameworks over Java EE, and that Java EE is not an commandeer framework for edifice cloud-native applications. They also advised those accountable for modernizing an enterprise's application infrastructure to "develop a strategy to deal with the obsolescence of Java EE and other three-tier application frameworks."
Java EE community leaders called the Gartner analysts irresponsible and out of palpate with the platform, and many blasted the report in blog posts and companionable media (and my inbox). I interviewed several of those critics for my January post, which includes links to some of the blogs.
Thomas was a bit surprised at the plane of outrage over her and Gupta's observations on what she believes are obvious facts about Java EE and the evolving demands on enterprise developers.
"In the note I definitely acknowledged that Java is a tremendous platform for developing enterprise applications," she told me. "But Java EE is, by definition, this amalgam of this massive number of APIs, everyone of which the certification process says must be present in the platform. What I'm maxim is, people don't necessity 90 percent of the stuff sitting in Java EE to build modern enterprise applications."
Some critics argued that Thomas and Gupta failed to recognize that Java EE has evolved since version 5 and the J2EE era, and that lighter-weight enterprise Java technologies, such as the Web Profile, IBM's WebSphere Liberty Profile, Red Hat's WildFly Swarm, Payara Micro and the fresh Eclipse MicroProfile, possess emerged. Others insisted that the admittedly slower pace of Java EE's evolution is a strength of the platform; it's standards-based, which matters in the enterprise.
But the critics are, if inadvertently, helping to fabricate Thomas's point, she said.
"I'm 100 percent in agreement with a lot of what these guys are saying," she said. "But they've got it in their heads that Java EE means everyone of Java. The fresh MicroProfile, for example, is just three Java APIs. That's great, but it's not Java EE."
Everyone understands that Java EE is overgrown, and not a soul better than Thomas, who was working at Sun Microsystems when the platform was conceived and the seeds of that growth were planted.
"The original end behind Java EE was to fabricate confident that everything you could possibly want in the enterprise Java space was going to be available in any application server you decided to deploy it on," she recalled. "It was everyone about portability. If I'm edifice a Java application, I know I'll possess this specific set of APIs and these specific versions, so that when I'm edifice an application I'll know it's there. That was a valuable proposition when Java EE was first created.
"The problem is it ended up becoming this incredibly bloated environment. carry out I really necessity CORBA in applications that I'm edifice today? In the next version of Java EE, they are going to remove CORBA, so there is evolution happening. The Web Profile took out a bunch of things, and it's a much better environment for edifice application than a full-bore Java EE. But it's silent very focused on three-tier, where the front-end tier is a Web environment. It's not designed to champion multi-client-, multi-channel-type applications. It's not designed to champion both Web and mobile, much less 20 or 30 other types of systems that are out there. It's not very well suited to champion Internet of Things applications. And it's not designed to champion microservices, which is why this independent group has gone off and said, they possess to possess a MicroProfile for Java EE."
One of the criticisms leveled against Thomas and Gupta's report was that they failed to differentiate between the Java EE measure and what Java EE vendors are building.
"Again, that supports my position," Thomas said. "What the vendors are edifice is not in conformance with the standard. They are edifice much smaller, much more focused implementations. They're not including everything but the kitchen sink in case somebody might necessity it.
"If you contemplate at something fancy the Jetty Web server, for example, which a lot of people are using now to build their applications, I believe it's now about 12MB in size. Compare that with the WebLogic platform, which is over 3GB in size. Why carry out I necessity such a colossal platform to host a microservice? It would be insane to utilize it. What I want is to embed Jetty, or Undertow, or Tomcat into my Spring Boot component, which is now an independently deployable component. I don't possess to deploy it into an application server. I just do it into a container and deploy it directly onto my VM. That's what the fresh environment looks like."
Effectively, she went on to argue, Java EE and enterprise Java are no longer the same thing. And a modern enterprise Java platform for modern applications is emerging, not from Oracle or the older standards bodies, but from open source communities.
"Over the past five years, maybe longer, the open source communities possess literally displaced the colossal standards bodies as a pass of ensuring hasty innovation and commonality across different systems," she said. It takes years for fresh standards to gain produced through the Java Community Process (JCP). And that process is even slower now that Oracle is running the JCP. The fact is, open source in generic is a much more effective pass of creating community standards. Communities fancy Spring, CloudFoundry, Eclipse, Apache -- that's where innovation in Java in particular is happening."
Thomas also expressed her admiration for the travail of groups fancy the Java EE Guardians and the MicroProfile.io initiative, but insisted that they aren't protecting Java EE, but enterprise Java.
"The MicroProfile is saying, this is the stuff that's considerable to us today," she said, "but Java EE does not give us what they need, so they possess to build their own, because Oracle isn't doing that. And the Guardians recognize that Oracle isn't doing what is needed to maintain Java as a censorious enterprise language and platform for the modern age."
Posted by John K. Waters on 02/16/2017 at 9:45 AM
This chapter from Core J2EE Patterns presents a high plane overview of the Java™ 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition (J2EE) and its technologies.From the author of
This chapter presents a high plane overview of the Java™ 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition (J2EE) and its technologies. If you already understand the J2EE platform and its technologies and APIs, you may wish to skip this chapter.
Read on if you wish to refresh your remembrance on J2EE.
From its introduction to the world in 1994 to current day, the Java™ programming language has revolutionized the software industry. Java has been used in a myriad of ways to implement various types of systems. As Java started becoming more and more ubiquitous, spreading from browsers to phones to everyone kinds of devices, they saw it gradually hone in on one particular belt and establish its strength and value proposition: That belt is the utilize of Java on servers. Over time, Java has become the chosen platform for programming servers.
Java provides its Write Once dash Anywhere™ handicap to IT organizations, application developers, and product vendors. IT organizations leverage the benefits of vendor independence and portability of their applications. The increasing availability of skilled Java programmers promoted Java's adoption in the industry. Unbelievably, the number of Java programmers has rocketed to 2.5 million developers in only five years.
The simplicity of the language and the explosive growth of its utilize on the Internet and the intranet urged numerous developers and IT organizations to embrace Java as the de facto programming language for their projects.
The client-server application architecture, a two-tier architecture, over time evolved to a multitier architecture. This natural progression occurred as additional tiers were introduced between the end-user clients and backend systems. Although a multitier architecture brings greater flexibility in design, it also increases the complexity for building, testing, deploying, administering, and maintaining application components. The J2EE platform is designed to champion a multitier architecture, and thus it reduces this complexity.
During this time, corporate Internet usage changed. Corporations transitioned from providing a simple corporate Web site to exposing some of their not-so-critical applications to the external world. In this first phase of Internet experimentation, IT managers were silent skeptical and the security police were adamantly unfriendly to the plan of using the Internet to dash and expose commerce services.
Before long, more and more companies started to embrace the power of the Internet. For example, customer service organizations began to provide service on the Web, in addition to the traditional methods of supporting customers by phone and email. Such organizations recognized the major cost implications of providing online service. Customers could now wait on themselves for most problems, and convoke a customer service agent only for more staid issues.
Customers liked using the Web too, as it improved their productivity. Soon, customers started expecting more and more online services from companies, and companies had to step up and provide these services. If they did not, someone else would.
Since then, almost everything has gone online—banking, bill payment, travel, ticketing, auctioning, car buying services, mortgages and loans, pharmacies, and even pet food! fresh companies were created that had no commerce model (now they know) other than opening shop online. They thrived and they thrashed. Established companies had to fabricate their online presence felt to kisser the challenges of these fresh kids on the block. This tremendous growth fueled the necessity for a robust, enterprise class, Web-centric application infrastructure.Application Servers—The fresh Breed
As the acceptance and adoption of Java on the server side became more established, and the require for Web-centric application infrastructure rose, they saw an emergence of a fresh breed of infrastructure applications—application servers. Application servers provided the basic infrastructure required for developing and deploying multitiered enterprise applications.
These application servers had numerous benefits. One considerable benefit was that IT organizations no longer needed to develop their proprietary infrastructure to champion their applications. Instead, they could now reckon on the application server vendor to provide the infrastructure. This not only reduced the cost of their applications, but also reduced the time-to-market.
Each application server had its own benefits and disadvantages. Because there were no standards for application servers, no two application servers were completely alike. Some application servers were based on Java, and these allowed you to write only Java components to dash on that server, while others used different languages for development.Convergence of Java Technologies
In the belt of Web applications, there were significant developments in Java as well. The Common Gateway Interface (CGI) approach for developing Web-centric applications was resource-intensive and did not scale well. With the introduction of servlet technology, Java developers had an elegant and efficient mechanism to write Web-centric applications that generated dynamic content. However, writing servlets silent took some application and Java expertise.
The measure approach for database access in Java applications is Java Database Connectivity (JDBC). The JDBC API (application programming interface) gives programmers the aptitude to fabricate their Java applications independent of the database vendor. One can write a JDBC application that accesses a database using measure Structured Query Language (SQL). If the underlying database changes from one vendor's product to another, the JDBC application works without any code change, provided that the code is properly written and does not utilize any proprietary extensions from the first vendor. JDBC API is offered as fraction of the core APIs in the JavaTM 2 Platform, measure Edition (J2SETM).
J2SE (formerly known as Java progress Kit or JDK) is the foundation for everyone Java APIs. J2SE consists of a set of core APIs that define the Java programming language interfaces and libraries. Java developers utilize the J2SE as the primary API for developing Java applications. As requirements expand and the Java language matures over the years, the J2SE offers additional APIs as measure extensions.
As Java established its permanent role on the server side, and the adoption of various Java APIs became widespread, Sun do together an initiative to unify standards for various Java technologies into a separate platform. The initiative to develop standards for enterprise Java APIs was formed under the open Java Community Process (JCP). Enterprise Java APIs are a collection of various APIs that provide vendor-independent programming interfaces to access various types of systems and services. The enterprise Java APIs emerged as the JavaTM 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition (J2EE™).The ascend of the J2EE Platform
The Enterprise Java Beans™ (EJB™) technology is one of the prominent, promising technologies in the J2EE platform. The EJB architecture provides a measure for developing reusable Java server components that dash in an application server. The EJB specification and APIs provide a vendor-independent programming interface for application servers. EJB components, called enterprise beans, provide for persistence, commerce processing, transaction processing, and distributed processing capabilities for enterprise applications. In short, the EJB technology offers portability of commerce components.
Various application vendors, having near together with Sun under the open JCP to develop this standard, adopted and implemented the EJB specification into their application server products. Similar to JDBC application portability, EJB applications are portable from one application server vendor to another. Again, this is uniform if the application does not utilize any vendor-dependent feature of the application server. J2EE technologies are now a proven and established platform for distributed computing for the enterprise.
Java Message Service (JMS) is another measure API in the J2EE platform. It brings the same kind of standardization to messaging as JDBC brought for databases. JMS provides a measure Java API for using message-oriented middleware (MOM) for point-to-point and publish/subscribe types of enterprise messaging. As with the other technologies, JMS brings vendor independence in the MOM products for Java.
In each of these areas, Sun and other companies collaborated in coming up with an acceptable measure under the auspices of the open JCP. The JCP coordinated the activities to develop these standards. This cooperation is a foundation for the success of these APIs.J2EE Value Proposition
The J2EE platform, built on the Java programming language and Java technologies, is the application architecture that is best suited for an enterprise-distributed environment. The J2EE platform is a measure that brings the following benefits to IT organizations, application developers, and product vendors:
Vendors develop products that can dash on any system that supports the J2EE platform. With virtually no extra effort, their products are available on a wide attain of system platforms.
Corporate IT developers benefit from the advantages of portable component technology. IT applications become vendor-independent and release the IT organizations from the clutches of vendor lock-in.
IT developers can focus on supporting commerce process requirements rather than edifice in-house application infrastructure. The application servers handle the tangled issues of multithreading, synchronization, transactions, resource allocation, and life-cycle management.
IT organizations can buy handicap of the best available products built on a measure platform. They can elect among products and select the most suitable and cost-effective progress products, deployment products, and deployment platforms based on their requirements.
Adopting the J2EE platform results in a significant productivity increase. Java developers can quickly learn the J2EE APIs.
Companies protect their investment by adopting the J2EE platform, since it is an industry-supported measure and not a vendor-defined lock-in architecture.
Development teams can build fresh applications and systems more rapidly. This decreases time-to-market and reduces the cost of development.
A measure progress platform for distributed computing ensures that robust applications are built on a proven platform.
The J2EE platform provides a clear, logical, and physical partitioning of applications into various tiers, thus naturally addressing multitiered application requirements.
Developers can either build their own J2EE component or procure it from the rapidly growing third-party components market. Vendors are able to tender their components individually, and customers are able to buy these software parts as needed.
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