310-202 exam Dumps Source : Certified System Administrator for the Solaris 10 OS, section ll
Test Code : 310-202
Test denomination : Certified System Administrator for the Solaris 10 OS, section ll
Vendor denomination : SUN
: 558 real Questions
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Commissioner of training encourages each faculty district to implement alert device called for in 2018 college security preparedness file
harmony — faculties and parents around current Hampshire now exist pleased a free app they could down load to augment communication between educators and families in case of emergencies. Ping4, a current Hampshire-based mostly company that presents a mobile phone alert paraphernalia within the industrial market, currently approved its groundwork to create the "protection. indicators. For. education." application to enhance college protection. The free app is accessible on the Apple App retain and Google Play.
The enterprise created the app after the Governor's school security Preparedness assignment obligate decided, by means of suggestion forty three, that current Hampshire needed to set up a gadget “to alert parents, team of workers and non-first responders privilege through an emergency to immediately and effectively notify them of latest incident and protection counsel.”
Following up on the free present in October, the industry currently install accounts for All current Hampshire faculties and are encouraging folks to register and ensure their colleges additionally spark off the alert device.
“whereas it may well exist that not All schools compose a determination to employ the Ping4 platform, as there are different products out there,” noted frank Edelblut, the commissioner of the brand current Hampshire department of training, “it is essential that All colleges accept some platform installation and exist pleased wide guardian sign-up so that they are able to exist pleased the applicable response within the event of an emergency.”
“Any measure that offers serve for police to respond rapidly and thoroughly to a school juncture is important,” referred to James Morse, the superintendent of the Oyster River Cooperative. “A uniform strategy throughout the status is an essential step ahead. Ping or equivalent measures, adopted with the aid of local faculty programs and their respective police departments, just makes savor for the security of recent Hampshire college students.”
The app uses geo-fencing expertise by the employ of the world positioning system allowing administrators and law enforcement to immediately and simultaneously alert college students and staffers of a threat via their cell phones. The expertise creates a discrete digital perimeter in and around schools, that could consist of parking a worthy deal, athletic fields and more. This enables as many people as possible, in the discrete area, to exist alerted in actual-time, stated Jim Bender, the CEO of Ping4.
“The S.A.F.E. foundation is offering this program free to current Hampshire colleges as a result of their babies’s protection is a accurate priority,” talked about Bender. “This know-how is proven and useful, and will enhance protection and in the reduction of response time within the event of a crisis.”
licensed Solaris system directors are assistance know-how (IT) gurus who install and retain network servers working one of the crucial Solaris operating system, at the flash purchasable throughout the Oracle service provider. they are always employed by pass of companies and different corporations with computing device networks that employ the company's open supply software products. As programs administrators, they might too also superintend different IT group of workers and reply to questions and preservation requests from workplace worker's.training Bachelor's degree in tips know-how or laptop science counseled Job potential Troubleshooting, analytical pondering, multitasking, verbal exchange revenue sweep (2016)* $87,400 to $104,762 with sun certified system Administrator credentials Job augment (2014-2024)** eight% for network and computing device techniques administrators
source: *Payscale, **U.S. Bureau of Labor statisticsRequired education
Most methods directors exist pleased achieved a Bachelor of Science in tips technology, computer Science or a linked box. Core coursework customarily comprises themes in programming languages and approaches, networking and methods design. Solaris certifications can exist found during the Oracle industry enterprise in community, security and techniques administration. requirements comprise a passing rating on an exam, which candidates can achieve together for via enrolling in lessons at the Oracle Academy or an accredited working towards middle, reviewing seminar packages and taking commemorate exams.competencies Required
programs directors are analytical thinkers who're in a position to troubleshoot issues for giant corporations of community paraphernalia clients. traumatic cases require clear, quick considering, and can involve working lengthy hours until the problem is fastened. The capacity to multitask will too exist constructive when managing more than one project at a time. verbal exchange skills are key when working with nontechnical team of workers participants.career and salary Outlook
The U.S. Bureau of Labor statistics (BLS) anticipated that jobs for gadget administrators in prevalent will augment by means of a yardstick tempo, 8% from 2014 to 2024. certified device directors will relish remarkable job prospects, as businesses increasingly depend on full-time gurus to hold their computing device working techniques. according to Payscale.com, licensed programs directors for Solaris working programs earned between $87,400 and $104,762 in might too 2016.
page 2 of four
With that as a starting point, how enact community directors with one or extra certifications fare? in response to PayScale.com records, crimson Hat licensed Engineers redress the income listing with a median earnings of $sixty seven,430. we'd exist pleased chosen a dwindle flush purple Hat certification to evaluate, such as pink Hat licensed Technician, however RHCE seemed the closest suit to their standards of being a device administrator certification. next up, solar certified device administrators, with a median of $sixty five,one hundred fifty, followed by licensed Novell directors ($fifty two,486), Microsoft licensed device administrators ($forty nine,547), Cisco licensed network Administrator ($forty nine,428), and eventually, network+ ($46,246). whereas an RHCE isn't on the equal skill stage as network+, these figures provide an exquisite positive case for the cost of IT certifications within the workplace.
Of route, compensation can fluctuate significantly depending on job position and years of event. The charts that commemorate betray what some of these diversifications are:
certified Novell Administrator (CNA) profits by using Job position
CompTIA community+ income by pass of adventure
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Disks are divided into regions called “disk slices” or “disk partitions.” A slice is composed of a single sweep of contiguous blocks. It is a physical subset of the disk (except for slice 2, which represents the entire disk). A UFS or the swap area is built within these disk slices. The boundaries of a disk slice are defined when a disk is partitioned using the format utility, and the slice information for a particular disk can exist viewed by using the prtvtoc command. Each disk slice appears to the OS (and to the system administrator) as though it were a separate disk drive.
Disk slicing differs between the SPARC and x86 platforms. On the SPARC platform, the entire disk is devoted to the OS; the disk can exist divided into 8 slices, numbered 0 to 7. On the x86 platform, the disk is divided into fdisk partitions using the fdisk command. The fdisk partition is divided into 10 slices, numbered 0 to 9.
A physical disk consists of a stack of circular platters. Data is stored on these platters in a cylindrical pattern called “cylinders” as illustrated in design 4-1. Cylinders can exist grouped and isolated from one another. A group of cylinders is referred to as a slice. A slice is defined with start and near points, starting from the outside of the platters to the heart of the stack of platters, which is called the “spindle.”
For example, a 73GB SCSI disk has 14,087 cylinders, numbered 0 to 14,086. Cylinder 0 is on the outside edge of the platters, and cylinder 14,086 is the closest to the spindle. Disk slices are defined by an offset and a size in cylinders. The offset is the distance from cylinder 0. To define a slice, the administrator provides a starting cylinder and an ending cylinder. A slice spanning from cylinder 0 to 14,086 would employ the entire disk and is typical of the slicing scheme used on a ZFS boot disk.
When setting up slices, recall these rules:
When they argue ZFS in Chapter 5, you’ll learn how to accept around some of these limitations in file systems.Displaying Disk Configuration Information
As described earlier, disk configuration information is stored in the disk label. If you know the disk and slice number, you can pomp information for a disk by using the print volume table of contents (prtvtoc) command. You can specify the volume by specifying any slice defined on the disk (for example, /dev/rdsk/c0t3d0s2 or /dev/rdsk/c0t3d0s*). Regardless of which slice you specify, All slices defined on the disk will exist displayed. If you know the target number of the disk but enact not know how it is divided into slices, you can explain information for the entire disk by specifying either slice 2 or s*. The following steps explain how you can examine information stored on a disk’s label by using the prtvtoc command.
Type the following text and press Enter.# prtvtoc /dev/rdsk/c2t0d0s2<cr>
The system responds with the following:* /dev/rdsk/c2t0d0s2 partition map * * Dimensions: * 512 bytes/sector * 424 sectors/track * 24 tracks/cylinder * 10176 sectors/cylinder * 14089 cylinders * 14087 accessible cylinders * * Flags: * 1: unmountable * 10: read-only * * Unallocated space: * First Sector Last * Sector weigh Sector * 0 10176 10175 * * First Sector Last * Partition Tag Flags Sector weigh Sector Mount Directory 0 2 00 10176 143339136 143349311 2 5 01 0 143349312 143349311
The disk described is a SAS disk, target 0 with an SMI VTOC label. The prtvtoc command shows the number of cylinders and heads, as well as how the disk’s slices are arranged.
The following is an instance of running the prtvtoc command on a SCSI disk with an EFI label:# prtvtoc /dev/rdsk/c2t1d0s1<cr> * /dev/rdsk/c2t1d0s1 partition map * * Dimensions: * 512 bytes/sector * 8385121 sectors * 8385054 accessible sectors * * Flags: * 1: unmountable * 10: read-only * * First Sector Last * Partition Tag Flags Sector weigh Sector Mount Directory 0 2 01 34 41006 41039 1 2 00 41040 8327663 8368702 /mnt 8 11 00 8368703 16384 8385086 Using the format Utility to Create Slices: SPARC
Before you can create a file system on a disk, the disk must exist formatted, and you must divide it into slices using the format utility. Formatting involves two separate processes:
When a disk is formatted, header and trailer information is superimposed on the disk. When the format utility runs a surface analysis, the controller scans the disk for defects. It should exist noted that defects and formatting information reduce the total disk space available for data. This is why a current disk usually holds only 90% to 95% of its capacity after formatting. This percentage varies according to disk geometry and decreases as the disk ages and develops more defects.
The necessity to achieve a surface analysis on a disk drive has dropped as more manufacturers ship their disk drives formatted and partitioned. You should not necessity to achieve a surface analysis within the format utility when adding a disk drive to an existing system unless you judge disk defects are causing problems. The primary judgement that you would employ format is if you want to view or change the partitioning scheme on a disk.
The format utility searches your system for All attached disk drives and reports the following information about the disk drives it finds:
In addition, the format utility is used in disk repair operations to enact the following:
The installation program partitions and labels disk drives as section of installing the Oracle Solaris release. However, you might necessity to employ the format utility when doing the following:
The following instance uses the format utility to create disk slices on a disk.
The system responds with the following:Searching for disks ... done AVAILABLE DISK SELECTIONS: 0. c0t0d0 <SUN36G cyl 24620 alt 2 hd 27 sec 107> /pci@1f,0/pci@1/scsi@8/sd@0,0 1. c0t1d0 <SUN36G cyl 24620 alt 2 hd 27 sec 107> /pci@1f,0/pci@1/scsi@8/sd@1,0
Specify the disk (enter its number).
The system responds with the format main menu:FORMAT MENU: disk - select a disk sort - select (define) a disk type partition - select (define) a partition table current - relate the current disk format - format and anatomize the disk repair - repair a defective sector label - write label to the disk anatomize - surface analysis defect - defect list management backup - search for backup labels verify - read and pomp labels deliver - deliver current disk/partition definitions inquisition - explain vendor, product and revision volname - set 8-character volume name !<cmd> - execute <cmd>, then return quit
Table 4-4 describes the format main menu items.Table 4-4 Format Main Menu detail Descriptions
Lists All of the system’s drives. too lets you choose the disk you want to employ in subsequent operations. This disk is referred to as the current disk.
Identifies the manufacturer and model of the current disk. too displays a list of known drive types. choose the Auto configure option for All SCSI-2 disk drives.
Creates and modifies slices.
Describes the current disk (that is, device name, device type, number of cylinders, alternate cylinders, heads, sectors, and physical device name).
Formats the current disk using one of these sources of information in this order:
Information that is found in the format.dat file.
Information from the automatic configuration process.
Information that you sort at the prompt if no format.dat entry exists.
This command does not apply to IDE disks. IDE disks are preformatted by the manufacturer.
x86 platform only: Runs the fdisk program to create an Oracle Solaris fdisk partition.
Used to repair a specific obscure on the current disk.
Writes a current label to the current disk. This is not the selfsame as labeling the disk with volname.
Runs read, write, and compare tests.
Retrieves and displays defect lists. This feature does not apply to IDE disks. IDE disks manage defects automatically.
Searches for backup labels if the VTOC becomes corrupted or gets deleted.
Displays information about the current disk such as device name, device type, number of cylinders, alternate cylinders, heads, sectors, and partition table.
Saves current disk and partition information.
SCSI disks only: Displays the vendor, product name, and revision flush of the current drive. This will too pomp the disk’s current firmware.
Labels the disk with a current eight-character volume denomination that you specify. This is not the selfsame as writing the partition table to disk using label.
Exits the format menu. Pressing Ctrl+D will too exit the format utility from the main menu or from any submenu.
Type “partition” at the format prompt. The partition menu is displayed.format> partition<cr> PARTITION MENU: 0 - change '0' partition 1 - change '1' partition 2 - change '2' partition 3 - change '3' partition 4 - change '4' partition 5 - change '5' partition 6 - change '6' partition 7 - change '7' partition select - select a predefined table modify - modify a predefined partition table denomination - denomination the current table print - pomp the current table label - write partition map and label to the disk !<cmd> - execute <cmd>, then return quit
Type “print” to pomp the current partition map.partition> print<cr>
The system responds with the following:Current partition table (original): Total disk cylinders available: 24620 + 2 (reserved cylinders) Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks 0 root wm 1418 - 9924 11.72GB (8507/0/0) 24576723 1 var wm 9925 - 13469 4.88GB (3545/0/0) 10241505 2 backup wm 0 - 24619 33.92GB (24620/0/0) 71127180 3 swap wu 0 - 1417 1.95GB (1418/0/0) 4096602 4 unassigned wm 13470 - 14887 1.95GB (1418/0/0) 4096602 5 unassigned wm 14888 - 16112 1.69GB (1225/0/0) 3539025 6 unassigned wm 16113 - 16821 1000.15MB (709/0/0) 2048301 7 home wm 16822 - 23910 9.77GB (7089/0/0) 20480121
The columns displayed with the partition table are
Tag: This is an optional value that indicates how the slice is being used. The value can exist any of the following names that best fits the duty of the file system you are creating:
unassigned, boot, root, swap, usr, backup, stand, var, home, alternates, reserved, system, BIOS_boot
Flag: Values in this column can be
Size: The slice size specified as
You can employ the denomination and deliver commands in the partition menu to denomination and deliver a newly created partition table to a file that can exist referenced by denomination later, when you want to employ this selfsame partition scheme on another disk. When issuing the denomination command, you’ll provide a unique denomination for this partition scheme and then issue the deliver command to deliver the information to the ./format.dat file. Normally this file is located in the /etc directory, so provide the replete pathname for /etc/format.dat to update the master file.
After you partition the disk, you must label it by typing label at the partition prompt:partition> label<cr>
You are asked for confirmation on labeling the disk as follows:Ready to label disk, continue? y<cr>
Enter “Y” to continue.
After labeling the disk, sort “quit” to exit the partition menu or press Ctrl+D to exit the format utility:partition> quit<cr>
Type “quit” again to exit the format utility:format> quit<cr>
It’s essential to point out a few undesirable things that can befall when defining disk partitions with the format utility if you’re not careful. First, exist heedful not to squander disk space. Wasted disk space can occur when you dwindle the size of one slice and enact not adjust the starting cylinder number of the adjoining disk slice.
Second, don’t overlap disk slices. Overlapping occurs when one or more cylinders are allocated to more than one disk slice. For example, increasing the size of one slice without decreasing the size of the adjoining slice will create overlapping partitions. The format utility will not warn you of wasted disk space or overlapping partitions.
The main judgement a system administrator uses the format utility is to divide a disk into disk slices. In Oracle Solaris 11 11/11, for a bootable ZFS root pool, the disks in the pool must contain slices and must exist labeled with an SMI label. The simplest configuration would exist to achieve the entire disk capacity in slice 0 and employ that slice for the root pool. Bootable ZFS root pools are discussed further in Chapter 5.
I’ll relate how to employ the SMI label for SPARC-based systems. For example, on a SPARC-based system with a 72GB disk, you would necessity to exist pleased 68GB of usable space located in slice 0. Similarly, on an x86-based system with a 72GB disk, you would too necessity to allow 68GB of usable space located in slice 0. A minute amount of boot information is contained in slice 8. Slice 8 requires no administration and cannot exist changed.
Follow these steps to partition a disk (c2t0d0) to exist used as a ZFS boot disk (bootable ZFS root pool) on a SPARC-based system. If the disk has an EFI label, and the firmware has not been upgraded, you must first transfigure it to an SMI label.
Use the prtvtoc command to verify the disk label as follows:# prtvtoc /dev/rdsk/c2t0d0s2<cr>
The system displaysPart Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks 0 root wm 1 - 14086 68.35GB (14086/0/0) 143339136 1 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 2 backup wu 0 - 14086 68.35GB (14087/0/0) 143349312 3 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 4 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 5 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 6 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 7 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0
Notice that slice 2 is labeled “backup” and the slices are numbered 0-7. This is an SMI label.
The following shows the output that is displayed for a disk with an EFI label:Part Tag Flag First Sector Size terminal Sector 0 usr wm 34 68.36GB 143358320 1 unassigned wm 0 0 0 2 unassigned wm 0 0 0 3 unassigned wm 0 0 0 4 unassigned wm 0 0 0 5 unassigned wm 0 0 0 6 unassigned wm 0 0 0 7 unassigned wm 0 0 0 8 reserved wm 143358321 8.00MB 143374704
Notice there is a slice 8 and slice 2 is NOT labeled “backup.” This is an EFI label and would necessity to exist changed. employ the following steps to change the label from an EFI label to an SMI label:
As root, employ the format -e command and select the disk to label as follows:# format –e<cr>
The system displays a list of disks. In the example, I selected disk 1 (c2t1d0):Searching for disks ... done AVAILABLE DISK SELECTIONS: 0. c2t0d0 <SUN72G cyl 14087 alt 2 hd 24 sec 424> /pci@780/pci@0/pci@9/scsi@0/sd@0,0 1. c2t1d0 <SEAGATE-ST973402SSUN72G-0603-68.37GB> /pci@780/pci@0/pci@9/scsi@0/sd@1,0 Specify disk (enter its number): 1<cr> selecting c2t1d0 [disk formatted]
The main menu is displayed. sort “label” to label the disk:FORMAT MENU: disk - select a disk sort - select (define) a disk type partition - select (define) a partition table current - relate the current disk format - format and anatomize the disk repair - repair a defective sector label - write label to the disk anatomize - surface analysis defect - defect list management backup - search for backup labels verify - read and pomp labels inquisition - explain disk ID scsi - independent SCSI mode selects cache - enable, disable or query SCSI disk cache volname - set 8-character volume name !<cmd> - execute <cmd>, then return quit format> label<cr>
Select option 1 to label the disk with an SMI label and press Enter when prompted for autoconfiguration: SMI Label  EFI Label Specify Label type: 0<cr> Auto configuration via format.dat[no]?<cr> Auto configuration via generic SCSI-2[no]?<cr> format>
Exit the format utility.format> quit<cr>
To slice the disk so that it can exist used as a ZFS boot disk, result these steps:
As root, enter the format utility:# format<cr> Searching for disks ... done
Select the disk that is going to exist sliced. In the example, I will select disk 1 (c2t1d0):AVAILABLE DISK SELECTIONS: 0. c2t0d0 <SUN72G cyl 14087 alt 2 hd 24 sec 424> /pci@780/pci@0/pci@9/scsi@0/sd@0,0 1. c2t1d0 <SEAGATE-ST973402SSUN72G-0603-68.37GB> /pci@780/pci@0/pci@9/scsi@0/sd@1,0 Specify disk (enter its number): 1<cr>
The system responds withselecting c2t1d0 [disk formatted]
Type “partition” at the format prompt. The partition menu is displayed.format> partition<cr> PARTITION MENU: 0 - change '0' partition 1 - change '1' partition 2 - change '2' partition 3 - change '3' partition 4 - change '4' partition 5 - change '5' partition 6 - change '6' partition 7 - change '7' partition select - select a predefined table modify - modify a predefined partition table denomination - denomination the current table print - pomp the current table label - write partition map and label to the disk !<cmd> - execute <cmd>, then return quit
Type “print” to pomp the current partition map.partition> print<cr>
The system responds with the following:partition> print<cr> Current partition table (original): Total disk cylinders available: 14087 + 2 (reserved cylinders) Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks 0 root wm 0 - 25 129.19MB (26/0/0) 264576 1 swap wu 26 - 51 129.19MB (26/0/0) 264576 2 backup wu 0 - 14086 68.35GB (14087/0/0) 143349312 3 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 4 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 5 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 6 usr wm 52 - 14086 68.10GB (14035/0/0) 142820160 7 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 partition>
Enter “modify” to change the partition table:partition> modify<cr>
Select option 1 for “All Free Hog” when prompted:Select partitioning base: 0. Current partition table (original) 1. All Free Hog Choose foundation (enter number) ? 1<cr> Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks 0 root wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 1 swap wu 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 2 backup wu 0 - 14086 68.35GB (14087/0/0) 143349312 3 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 4 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 5 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 6 usr wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 7 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0
Type “yes” when asked whether to continue:Do you wish to continue creating a current partition table based on above table[yes]? yes<cr>
Type “0” for the Free Hog partition:Free Hog partition? 0<cr>
The system will prompt you to enter a size for each partition. Press Enter when prompted as follows, and each slice will exist 0MB:Enter size of partition '1' [0b, 0c, 0.00mb, 0.00gb]:<cr> Enter size of partition '3' [0b, 0c, 0.00mb, 0.00gb]:<cr> Enter size of partition '4' [0b, 0c, 0.00mb, 0.00gb]:<cr> Enter size of partition '5' [0b, 0c, 0.00mb, 0.00gb]:<cr> Enter size of partition '6' [0b, 0c, 0.00mb, 0.00gb]:<cr> Enter size of partition '7' [0b, 0c, 0.00mb, 0.00gb]:<cr>
Because All of the slices exist pleased been set to “0,” the free hog space is the entire disk. This space will exist allocated to slice 0 as specified in step 6.
When prompted to compose this the current partition table, press Enter to employ the default value “yes”:Okay to compose this the current partition table[yes]?<cr>
When prompted for a table name, enter “rootdisk.” This denomination is not significant and can exist any name.Enter table denomination (remember quotes): rootdisk<cr>
Enter “pr” to pomp the current partition table:partition> pr<cr> Current partition table (unnamed): Total disk cylinders available: 14087 + 2 (reserved cylinders) Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks 0 root wm 0 - 14086 68.35GB (14087/0/0) 143349312 1 swap wu 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 2 backup wu 0 - 14086 68.35GB (14087/0/0) 143349312 3 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 4 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 5 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 6 usr wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 7 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 partition>
Notice that slice 0 is the entire disk.
Enter “quit” or press Ctrl+D to exit the format utility.partition> quit<cr>
As described earlier in this chapter, Oracle Solaris on the x86 platform treats disk drives slightly differently than on the SPARC-based systems. Disks on the x86 platform must exist pleased an fdisk partition table. The x86-based systems employ the fdisk partition table to identify parts of the disk reserved for different OSs and to identify the partition that the system will boot from. This boot partition is referred to as the “active disk” partition. You can apportion one fdisk partition on a disk to exist used for Oracle Solaris.
On an x86-based system, once a disk drive has been physically installed and verified as working, you’ll employ the format command to slice the disk, but first an fdisk partition must exist created on the current drive. You can create this fdisk partition using the fdisk command from the command line or through the format utility. The following steps relate how to create a fixed disk partition table on a disk using the format utility:
As root, sort “format” to accept into the format utility.# format<cr>
The following menu appears:AVAILABLE DISK SELECTIONS: 0. c1t0d0 <FUJITSU-M1606S-512-6234 cyl 3455 alt 2 hd 6 sec 102> /pci@0,0/pci9004,8178@3/cmdk@0,0 1. c1t1d0 <IBM-DFHSS1W!e-4141 cyl 4071 alt 2 hd 4 sec 135> /pci@0,0/pci9004,8178@3/cmdk@1,0 2. c1t2d0 <DEFAULT cyl 2928 alt 2 hd 6 sec 120> /pci@0,0/pci9004,8178@3/cmdk@2,0 Specify disk (enter its number):
Enter the number corresponding to the current drive and the following menu will exist displayed:FORMAT MENU: disk - select a disk sort - select (define) a disk type partition - select (define) a partition table current - relate the current disk format - format and anatomize the disk fdisk - sprint the fdisk program repair - repair a defective sector label - write label to the disk anatomize - surface analysis defect - defect list management backup - search for backup labels verify - read and pomp labels deliver - deliver current disk/partition definitions inquisition - explain vendor, product and revision volname - set 8-character volume name5 quit format>
Select the fdisk option and the following menu appears:The recommended default partitioning for your disk is: a 100% "SOLARIS System" partition. To select this, gladden sort "y". To partition your disk differently, sort "n" and the "fdisk" program will let you select other partitions.
If you wish to employ the entire drive for Oracle Solaris, enter “Y.” This will recrudesce you to the format menu. If “N” is entered, the fdisk menu will exist displayed.Total disk size is 4073 cylinders Cylinder size is 540 (512 byte) blocks Cylinders Partition Status sort Start near Length ========= ====== ======== ===== === ====== === THERE ARE NO PARTITIONS CURRENTLY DEFINED SELECT ONE OF THE FOLLOWING: 1. Create a partition 2. Change energetic (Boot from) partition 3. Delete a partition 4. Exit (Update disk configuration and exit) 5. Cancel (Exit without updating disk configuration) Enter Selection:
Disks on x86-based systems can exist divided into 10 slices labeled slice 0 through slice 9. On Oracle Solaris 11/11, slices 0 through 7 are used for the selfsame purposes as disk slices found on SPARC-based systems. Slice 2 represents All of the space within the fdisk partition. As stated earlier, slices 8 and 9 are used for purposes specific to x86-based hardware. You cannot modify slices 8 and 9 using the format utility. soar with Oracle Solaris 11.1, the boot disk on an x86-based system can contain an EFI label, and the partition scheme is slightly different than the SPARC system. Slice 0 is reserved for the BIOS_boot information. I’ll relate this more in the next chapter.
Here’s an instance of the partition table on an IDE or SATA disk on an x86-based system running Oracle Solaris 11/11, as displayed by the format utility:Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks (output omitted) 8 boot wu 0 - 0 7.84MB (1/0/0) 16065 9 alternates wm 1 - 2 15.69MB (2/0/0) 32130
In the previous example, notice that slice 9 is defined and tagged as the alternates slice.
The next instance shows the partition table for a SCSI disk attached to an x86-based system. Notice that partition 8 is assigned, but slice 9 is not used:Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks (output omitted) 8 boot wu 0 - 0 7.84MB (1/0/0) 16065 9 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0
One more detail of note: On yardstick UFSs, don’t change the size of disk slices that are currently in use. When a disk with existing slices is repartitioned and relabeled, any existing data will exist lost. Before repartitioning a disk, first copy All of the data to tape or to another disk.
You can too create the fixed disk partition table on an x86-based system disk from the command line using a single command as follows:# fdisk –B c1t0d0<cr>
The –B option creates a single fixed disk partition that spans the entire disk. The following 36GB disk was formatted using the fdisk –B command:Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks 0 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 1 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 2 backup wu 0 - 4695 35.97GB (4696/0/0) 75441240 3 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 4 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 5 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 6 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 7 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 8 boot wu 0 - 0 7.84MB (1/0/0) 16065 9 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0
The fdisk –B command can too exist used to transfigure a disk label from an EFI to SMI.
To verify that a disk contains a fixed disk partition table, issue the following command:
# fdisk -v -W - /dev/rdsk/c3t0d0p<cr>
The system displays the fdisk table for disk c3t0d0:* /dev/rdsk/c3t0d0p0 default fdisk table * Dimensions: * 512 bytes/sector * 63 sectors/track * 255 tracks/cylinder * 2088 cylinders * * systid: * 1: DOSOS12 * 2: PCIXOS * 4: DOSOS16 * 5: EXTDOS * 6: DOSBIG * 7: FDISK_IFS * 8: FDISK_AIXBOOT * 9: FDISK_AIXDATA * 10: FDISK_0S2BOOT * 11: FDISK_WINDOWS * 12: FDISK_EXT_WIN * 14: FDISK_FAT95 * 15: FDISK_EXTLBA * 18: DIAGPART * 65: FDISK_LINUX * 82: FDISK_CPM * 86: DOSDATA * 98: OTHEROS * 99: UNIXOS * 100: FDISK_NOVELL2 * 101: FDISK_NOVELL3 * 119: FDISK_QNX4 * 120: FDISK_QNX42 * 121: FDISK_QNX43 * 130: SUNIXOS * 131: FDISK_LINUXNAT * 134: FDISK_NTFSVOL1 * 135: FDISK_NTFSVOL2 * 165: FDISK_BSD * 167: FDISK_NEXTSTEP * 183: FDISK_BSDIFS * 184: FDISK_BSDISWAP * 190: X86BOOT * 191: SUNIXOS2 * 238: EFI_PMBR * 239: EFI_FS * Id Act Bhead Bsect Bcyl Ehead Esect Ecyl Rsect Numsect 191 128 0 1 1 254 63 1023 16065 33527655 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
When there are multiple disks of the selfsame sort (manufacturer, model, size, and geometry) to exist sliced, you can deliver time by copying the label from a source disk over to a target disk without going through All of the steps using the format utility. employ the prtvtoc command to accept the partition table from the source disk (c0t0d0) and write the table to the target disk (c0t1d0) using the fmthard command as follows:# prtvtoc /dev/rdsk/c0t0d0s2 | fmthard –s - /dev/rdsk/c0t1d0s2<cr>
Although I’ve been supporting Macs since they came out in 1984 (when I was in towering school), I haven’t received any “formal” training. It has mostly been learning by doing, reading the occasional bespeak and now of course, TheAppleBlog. Does formal certification really compose a dissimilarity as a technician? You bid me.Advertisement
Recently I got into an controversy with a vendor that by hook or by thought a technician who first started repairing Macs sixth months ago trumped my 25 years experience. Did certification compose this person a better technician? Having done quite a bit of hiring myself, I’ve too often found that certification only verifies your ability to select a test and may not exist pleased mien in the real world.
Now that the market has changed and everyone seems to exist competing for scarce resources, perhaps a certification would exist an additional edge? What’s the industry strategy for independent Mac technicians wanting more? The reply took a lot of research — even Apple wasn’t able to reply my questions — so learn from my journey.
Credit goes to both Brian Best of BestMacs and Doug Hanley of MacTEK Training, because without them I wouldn’t understand the alphabet soup of ACSP, ACMT, ACTC, ACSA, AASP, ACN and more. Didn’t they All become Mac users to avoid esoteric terms? As many of you know, the ease of the Apple user interface is equalled only by the frustration of trying to understand Apple’s certifications programs. Figuring out this path was much harder than any video game I’ve ever played, but a “game” may exist the best metaphor to relate the process.The Game
You initiate the “game” as a common Mac user. The three worlds you’ll generally behold in the game are IT, Pro Apps, and Sales. As an IT person maybe you exist pleased skills, maybe you don’t. Nothing stops you from simply repairing Macs on your own, unless you enact things that specifically void the warranty and you accept caught doing so. You enact not necessity consent per se from Apple to drudgery on Macs. Many folks are gay at this flush collecting coins one by one, but you can’t proceed any further unless you accept a certification — the key that unlocks the next flush in the game.
The first certification most budge for is Apple Certified champion Professional (ACSP) which used to exist known as an Apple Certified serve Desk Specialist (ACHDS). This certifies your ability to understand the operating system and is earned based on the OS version. Therefore, you are an Apple Certified champion Professional in 10.5 (or soon 10.6). Each OS requires certification, but your certification does not expire. Therefore, if you are a ACHDS in 10.3, you can muster yourself certified without understanding 10.5 at all. Your can select the test without training (many do), self-study via materials from Peachpit, or attend an instructor-lead course at an Apple Authorized Training heart (AATC). MacTek is one of those centers. You’ll select the test at a Prometric testing heart and pay around $200. The test takes about 90 minutes or so and you accept the results immediately.Apple Consultants Network
While certification is the means, the near you may exist reaching for is the ability to connect the Apple Consultants Network (ACN). Joining the ACN requires any Apple certification, such as the ACSP discussed above, or any number of other certifications (described below, though one source says not All certifications are valid, so beware). Keeping with the video game analogy, the ACN is relish an entire current area of the video game you want to explore, but the boss that must exist defeated first is Apple, and your weapon is a certification!
After getting a certification you can then apply to connect the ACN. The application fee is $60 and the actual fee to connect is $395 as a sole proprietor. The replete requirements are here. You’ll accept lots of benefits such as product discounts as well as the ability to network with other Macintosh consultants. As an ACN, Apple store employees may hand out your card to customers in the store. Now your industry can really expand as every Apple store customer is a potential customer for you.
ACN membership is worthy and many tarry at this flush of the “game” using the ACN membership as a multiplier for their income. However, you silent can’t enact hardware repairs under warranty nor order Apple parts. As with the video game, you’re stuck at this flush unless you explore further and try to subjugate the next boss. Apple always controls the rules. Accept it as section of the game. Fail to accept it and you’ll accept slapped back to the soar of the game quicker than you can click the home button.Server Administration Certification
From this point, you exist pleased a pair directions you can go. You can focus on repair and service, or you can focus on server or advanced software administration (many folks will enact both). I will argue the server administration certifications and the hardware services certifications. You can judge of each of these as two separate worlds in the game. You can choose one or the other, or explore them both.
The first flush server administration certification is another 4-letter acronym: ACTC: Apple Certified Technical Coordinator. In addition to passing the test for ACSP, you’ll face the Server Essentials test. This extends your workstation abilities to servers. An even higher flush of certification within the server realm is an ACSA — Apple Certified Systems Administrator. For the ACSA, you’ll necessity to pass four tests: Server Essentials, Directory Services, Deployment, and Mobility and Security for 10.6 (or Advanced System Administration for 10.5).
Apple too offers the ACMA (Apple Certified Media Administrator) which includes Server Essentials, Xsan, Final prick Server and as an option, champion Essentials, Deployment, Directory Services, or Final prick flush 1. Other certifications are not necessarily IT related and are software-focused. That’s a realm I’m not exploring as they chose the IT track at the soar of the game.Hardware Repair Certification
Moving on from server administration to actual Apple hardware repair, the primary certification you will merit is the Apple Certified Macintosh Technician (ACMT), formerly the Apple Certified Portable Technician (ACPT) and Apple Certified Desktop Technician (ACDT). This certification means you are theoretically qualified to enact warranty repairs on Apple Macintosh equipment. The skills required for ACMT are those of hardware repair and software troubleshooting. You don’t necessity an ACSP to exist an ACMT, but many people merit both. The educational process for hardware repair is more fierce and it’s less likely you’ll pass the test without some training. At this level, you can too budge to an AATC and pay about $4,800 for both the hardware and software aspects of the course, or your can purchase self-study materials from Apple called “Apple custody Technician Training” for $299.Apple Authorized Service Provider
Similar to how passing the ACSP allows you to connect the Apple Consultants Network, passing the ACMT allows you to enter the realm of an Apple Authorized Service Provider (AASP). You may not automatically become one though, and only AASP’s accept reimbursement from Apple for warranty work. However, being an ACMT is very helpful if you want to accept a job as an AASP. You may too apply to enact warranty repairs for your larger organization of over 50 Macs via the Self-Service program. If you want to promote to being able to enact warranty repairs for anyone, you’ll face that selfsame boss again, Apple. Note that becoming an ACMT will not necessarily merit you any more money than an ACSA or ACTC. Facing the next boss may exist too expensive and too restricting, but if you enact want the next level, read on.
Getting to that AASP flush is really the final flush of the game. You’ll necessity to exist pleased an ACMT on staff and result stricter requirements than joining the Apple Consultants Network. Generally you’ll necessity a real store front and not exist a one-person operation. Apple grants exceptions (doesn’t every game exist pleased cheat codes?), but don’t weigh on it. Once you exist pleased your AASP you can exist listed with Apple as a service provider and accept reimbursed for warranty repairs.
So I’ve loaded the game and pressed Start. Is certification worth it? What about ACN or AASP? Which training should I budge for? Is instructor lead training worth it? Any training vendors willing to sponsor me? What about the self-study programs? participate with me your experiences in the game and let’s develop a definitive lead including “cheat codes.”Apple-authorized Organizations
ACN (Apple Consultants Network)What it is: Network on Apple professionals, receives discounts and assistance from Apple, and can exist referred from Apple retail stores.Requirements: Any certification.
AASP (Apple Authorized Service Provider)What is it: industry that is permitted to enact Apple warranty repairs for reimbursement and order parts from Apple.Requirements: exist pleased an Apple Certified Macintosh Technician on staff, among other requirements.Certifications
Apple Certified champion Professional: Basic understanding of the client Mac operating system and troubleshooting.
Apple Certified Technical Coordinator: Deeper understanding of the Mac OS, including the Mac OS X Server and Server Essentials.
Apple Certified Systems Administrator: Even greater technical understanding of the Mac OS X Server, including passing tests on Server Essentials, Directory Services, Deployment, and Mobility and Security.
Apple Certified Media Administrator: This is a sister track of the “Apple Certified Systems Administrator” with a focus on the needs of media management, and includes training in XSan or Final Cut.
Apple Certified Macintosh Technician: You can enact Apple hardware repairs, both in and out of warranty. Required to start (or accept a job with) an Apple Authorized Service Provider, or self-service your large organization.
Ethical hacking, too known as penetration testing or pen testing, is legally breaking into computers and devices to test an organization's defenses. It's among the most exciting IT jobs any person can exist involved in. You are literally getting paid to retain up with the latest technology and accept to break into computers without the threat of being arrested.
Companies engage ethical hackers to identify vulnerabilities in their systems. From the penetration tester's point of view, there is no downside: If you hack in past the current defenses, you’ve given the client a haphazard to near the pocket before an attacker discovers it. If you don’t find anything, your client is even happier because they now accept to declare their systems “secure enough that even paid hackers couldn’t smash into it.” Win-win!
I’ve been in computer security for over 30 years, and no job has been more challenging and fun than professional penetration testing. You not only accept to enact something fun, but pen testers often are seen with an aura of extra coolness that comes from everyone knowing they could smash into almost any computer at will. Although now long turned legit, the world’s former most notorious uber hacker, Kevin Mitnick, told me that he gets the exact selfsame emotional thrill out of being paid to legally smash into places as he did for All those years of illegal hacking. Mitnick said, the only dissimilarity “is the report writing.”What enact ethical hackers do?
Scope and goal setting
It is essential for any professional pen tester to document agreed upon scope and goals. These are the kinds of questions regarding scope you necessity to ask:
Ask these questions regarding the goals of the penetration test.
It’s essential that the scope and goals exist described in detail, and agreed upon, prior to any penetration testing attempts.
Discovery: Learn about your target
Every ethical hacker begins their asset hacking (excluding convivial engineering techniques for this discussion) by learning as much about the pen test targets as they can. They want to know IP addresses, OS platforms, applications, version numbers, patch levels, advertised network ports, users, and anything else that can lead to an exploit. It is a rarity that an ethical hacker won’t behold an obvious potential vulnerability by spending just a few minutes looking at an asset. At the very least, even if they don’t behold something obvious, they can employ the information erudite in discovery for continued analysis and assault tries.
Exploitation: smash into the target asset
This is what the ethical hacker is being paid for – the “break-in.” Using the information erudite in the discovery phase, the pen tester needs to exploit a vulnerability to gain unauthorized access (or denial of service, if that is the goal). If the hacker can’t break-in to a particular asset, then they must try other in-scope assets. Personally,
if I’ve done a thorough discovery job, then I’ve always found an exploit. I don’t even know of a professional penetration tester that has not broken into an asset they were hired to smash into, at least initially, before their delivered report allowed the defender to near All the found holes. I’m sure there are penetration testers that don’t always find exploits and accomplish their hacking goals, but if you enact the discovery process thoroughly enough, the exploitation section isn’t as difficult as many people believe. Being a obliging penetration tester or hacker is less about being a genius and more about long-suffering and thoroughness.
Depending on the vulnerability and exploit, the now gained access may require “privilege escalation” to whirl a household user’s access into higher administrative access. This can require a second exploit to exist used, but only if the initial exploit didn’t already give the attacker privileged access.
Depending on what is in scope, the vulnerability discovery can exist automated using exploitation or vulnerability scanning software. The latter software sort usually finds vulnerabilities,but does not exploit them to gain unauthorized access.
Next, the pen tester either performs the agreed upon goal action if they are in their ultimate destination, or they employ the currently exploited computer to gain access closer to their eventual destination. Pen testers and defenders muster this “horizontal” or “vertical” movement, depending on whether the attacker moves within the selfsame class of system or outward to non-related systems. Sometimes the goal of the ethical hacker must exist proven as attained (such as revealing system secrets or confidential data) or the mere documentation of how it could exist pleased been successfully accomplished is enough.
Document the pen-test effort
Lastly, the professional penetration tester must write up and present the agreed upon report, including findings and conclusions.How to become an ethical hacker
Any hacker must select some common steps to become an ethical hacker, the bare minimum of which is to compose sure you exist pleased documented consent from the privilege people before breaking into something. Not breaking the law is paramount to being an ethical hacker. All professional penetration testers should result a code of ethics to lead everything they do. The EC-Council, creators of the Certificated Ethical Hacker (CEH) exam, exist pleased one of the best public code of ethics available.
Most ethical hackers become professional penetration testers one of two ways. Either they learn hacking skills on their own or they select formal education classes. Many, relish me, did both. Although sometimes mocked by self-learners, ethical hacking courses and certifications are often the gateway to a obliging paying job as a full-time penetration tester.
Today’s IT security education curriculum is replete of courses and certifications that discipline someone how to exist an ethical hacker. For most of the certification exams you can self-study and bring your own savor to the testing heart or select an approved education course. While you don’t necessity an ethical hacking certification to accept employed as professional penetration tester, it can’t hurt.
As CBT Nuggets trainer, Keith Barker said, “I judge the occasion to exist pleased 'certified ethical anything' on your resume can only exist a obliging thing, but it’s more of an entry pass into more study. Plus, if companies behold that you are certified in ethical hacking, they know you exist pleased seen and agreed to a particular code of ethics. If an employer is looking at resumes and they behold someone who has an ethical hacking certification and someone that didn't, it’s got to help.”
Even though they discipline the selfsame skill every ethical hacking course and certification is different. Do a shrimp research to find the privilege one for you.5 top ethical hacking courses and certifications
The EC-Council’s Certificate Ethical Hacker (CEH) is easily the oldest and most approved penetration course and certification. The official course, which can exist taken online or with a live in-person instructor, contains 18 different subject domains including traditional hacking subjects, plus modules on malware, wireless, cloud and mobile platforms. The replete remote course includes six months of access to the online Cyber sweep iLab, which will allow students to practice over 100 hacking skills.
Sitting for the CEH certification requires taking an official course or, if self-study, proof of two years of germane savor or education. It contains 125 multiple-choice questions with a four-hour time limit. Taking the exam requires accepting the EC-Council’s Code of Ethics, which was one of the first required codes of ethics required of computer security test takers. The courseware and testing is routinely updated.SANS GPEN
SysAdmin, Networking, and Security (SANS) Institute is a highly respected training organization, and anything they discipline along with their certifications are greatly respected by IT security practitioners. SANS offers multiple pen testing courses and certifications, but its base GIAC Penetration Tester (GPEN) is one of the most popular.
The official course for the GPEN, SEC560: Network Penetration Testing and Ethical Hacking, can exist taken online or live in-person. The GPEN exam has 115 questions, a three-hour time limit, and requires a 74 percent score to pass. No specific training is required for any GIAC exam. The GPEN is covered on GIAC’s common code of ethics, which they select very seriously as attested to by a running weigh of exam passers who exist pleased been disqualified for violating the code.
“I relish how [the GPEN exam] ties to practical skills that penetration testers necessity to exist pleased to enact their jobs every day,” says Skoudis. “It covers everything from minute technical approaches to testing All the pass up through scoping, rules of engagement, and reporting. The exam is very scenario focused, so it will present a given penetration test scenario and request which is the best pass forward. Or, it’ll explain you the output from a tool, and request what the utensil is telling you and what you should enact next. I esteem that so much, as it measures real-world skills better. The exam doesn’t exist pleased a lot of questions that are merely definitional, where they exist pleased a sentence that is missing one word and request you which of the following words best fill in the sentence. That’s not a particularly obliging pass of measuring skills.”Offensive Security Certified Professional
The Offensive Security Certified Professional (OSCP) course and certification has gained a well-earned reputation for toughness with a very hands-on learning structure and exam. The official online, self-paced training course is called Penetration Testing with Kali Linux and includes 30 days of lab access. Because it relies on Kali Linux (the successor to pen testers' previous favorite Linux distro, BackTrack), participants necessity to exist pleased a basic understanding of how to employ Linux, bash shells and scripts.
The OSCP is known for pushing its students and exam takers harder than other pen testing paths. For example, the OSCP course teaches, and the exam requires, the ability to obtain, modify and employ publicly obtained exploit code. For the “exam”, the participant is given instructions to remotely attach to a virtual environment where they are expected to compromise multiple operating systems and devices within 24-hours, and thoroughly document how they did it. nasty Security too offers even more advanced pen testing courses and exams (e.g., including involving web, wireless, and advanced Windows exploitation). Readers may want to select advantage of their free, online basic Metasploit utensil course.Foundstone Ultimate Hacking
McAfee’s Foundstone industry unit (which I worked for over 10 years ago) was one of the first hands-on penetration testing courses available. Its succession of Ultimate Hacking courses and books led the territory for a long time. They covered Windows, Linux, Solaris, web, SQL, and a host of advanced hacker techniques (such as tunneling). Unfortunately, Ultimate Hacking courses don’t exist pleased formal exams and certifications.
Today, Foundstone offers a host of training options well beyond just pen testing, including forensics and incident response (as enact many of the other players in this article). Additionally, Foundstone offers training in hacking internet of things (IoT), firmware, industrial control security systems, Bluetooth and RFID. Foundstone instructors are often real-life pen testers and security consultants, although many, if not most, of the training courses are handled by partners.CREST
Internationally, the not-for-profit CREST information assurance accreditation and certification body’s pen test courses and exams are commonly accepted in many countries, including the United Kingdom, Australia, Europe, and Asia. CREST’s mission is to educate and certify quality pen testers. All CREST-approved exams exist pleased been reviewed and approved by the UK’s Government Communication Headquarters (GCHQ), which is analogous to the United States’ NSA.
CREST’s basic pen testing exam is known as the CREST Registered Tester (or CRT), and there are exams for web and infrastructure pen testers. Exams and costs vary by country. CREST test takers must review and acknowledge the CREST Code of Conduct. The nasty Security OSCP certification can exist used to obtain the CRT.
All the instructors I spoke to believed that the courses they taught were just a beginning. Barker of CBT Nuggets said, “[Certification exams] are a worthy entry point and exposure to All the foundations that you can then budge onto more.”
“Each [of their classes] is not just a standalone class someone takes for six days and then disappears,” says Skoudis. "Instead, their classes are more relish an ecosystem, centered around that 6 days of training, but with webcasts and result up blogs for continued learning going forward. Also, we’ve been super fortunate to exist pleased their previous students contributing to this ecosystem through their own blogs and utensil development, giving back to the community. It’s really a fine virtuous cycle, and I’m so thankful to exist a shrimp section of it.”Ethical hacking tools
Ethical hackers usually exist pleased a yardstick set of hacking tools that they employ All the time, but they might exist pleased to search for for and stock up on different tools depending on the particular job. For example, if the penetration tester is asked to assault SQL servers and has no germane experience, they might want to start researching and testing different SQL assault tools.
Most penetration testers start with a Linux OS “distro” that is specialized for penetration testing. Linux distros for hacking reach and budge over the years, but privilege now the Kali distro is the one most professional ethical hackers prefer. There are thousands of hacking tools, including a bunch of stalwarts that nearly every pen tester uses.
The most essential point of any hacking tool, beyond its quality and meet for the job at hand, is to compose sure it does not contain malware or other code designed to hack the hacker. The vast majority of hacking tools that you can accept on internet, especially for free, contain malware and undocumented backdoors. You can usually confidence the most common and approved hacking tools, like Nmap, but the best ethical hackers write and employ their own tools because they don’t confidence anything written by someone else.
For a more in-depth search for at ethical hacking tools, read "17 penetration testing tools the pros use."Ethical hacking jobs: How the role is evolving
Like every other IT security discipline, ethical hacking is maturing. Standalone hackers who simply explain technical prowess without professionalism and sophistication are becoming less in demand. Employers are looking for the complete professional hacker — both in practice and the toolsets they use.
Better toolkits: Penetration or vulnerability testing software has always been a section of the ethical hacker’s toolkit. More than likely, the customer already is running one or both of these on a regular basis. One of the most exciting developments in pen testing are tools that essentially enact All of the difficult drudgery from discovery to exploitation, much relish an attacker might.
An instance of this sort of utensil is open source Bloodhound. Bloodhound allows attackers to see, graphically, relationships among different computers on an energetic Directory network. If you input a desired target goal, Bloodhound can serve you quickly behold multiple hacking paths to accept from where you start to that target, often identifying paths you didn’t know existed. I’ve seen tangled uses where pen testers simply entered in starting and ending points, and Bloodhound and a few scripts did the rest, including All hacking steps necessary to accept from point A to Z. Of course, commercial penetration testing software has had this sort of sophistication for much longer.
A picture is worth a thousand words: It used to exist that to sell a defense to senior management, pen testers would hack senior management or explain them documentation. Today, senior management wants slip decks, videos or animations of how particular hacks were performed in their environment. They employ it not only to sell other senior managers on particular defenses but too as section of employee education.
Risk management: It’s too not enough to hand off a list of found vulnerabilities to the rest of the company and esteem your job done. No, today’s professional penetration testers must drudgery with IT management to identify the biggest and most likely threats. Penetration testers are now section of the risk management team, helping to efficiently reduce risk even more so than just simple vulnerabilities. This means that ethical hackers provide even more value by showing management and defenders what is most likely to befall and how, and not just explain them a one-off hack that is unlikely to occur from a real-life intruder.
Professional penetration testing isn’t for everyone. It requires becoming a near-expert in several different technologies and platforms, as well as an intrinsic desire to behold if something can exist broken into past the normally presented boundaries. If you’ve got that desire, and can result some legal and ethical guidelines, you, too, can exist a professional hacker.
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