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Ballots Counted in 2017 ARRL Director, Vice Director Elections

The votes are in, and the ballots hold been tallied at ARRL Headquarters in contested Director and Vice Director elections.

Dakota Division Director-Elect Matt Holden, K0BBC.

In a two-way race to fill the Dakota Division Director's chair being vacated by Kent Olson, KA0LDG, the Division's members elected Vice Director Matt Holden, K0BBC, of Bloomington, Minnesota. Holden received 698 votes, while Dean Summers, N0ND, of Dickinson, North Dakota, got 345 votes. Holden was appointed Vice Director in February 2016 after former Director Greg Widin, K0GW, became ARRL First Vice President. Olson announced earlier this year that he would not quest another term.

In a four-way race for the Vice Director's chair that Holden will vacate, the winner was North Dakota Section Manager Lynn Nelson, W0ND, of Minot. Nelson earned 427 votes; Tom Karnauskas, N0UW, of Owatonna, Minnesota, received 338 votes; Chris Stallkamp, KI0D, of Selby, South Dakota got 175 votes; and Jay Maynard, K5ZC, of Fairmont, Minnesota, picked up 93 votes.

In the Atlantic Division, ARRL members chose former FCC Special Counsel Riley Hollingsworth, K4ZDH, of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, as Vice Director. In the final tally, Hollingsworth received 2,559 votes, while Lloyd Roach, K3QNT, of Bedford, Pennsylvania, garnered 1,348 votes.

Ballots were counted on November 17 at ARRL Headquarters. [Dave Isgur photo]

In the Midwest Division, Director Rod Blocksome, K0DAS, easily held off a re-election challenge from Cecil Miller, WB0RIW, of Wichita, Kansas, 1,249 to 792. Blocksome was elected Midwest Division Vice Director in 2011. In 2014, he was the only candidate to succeed retiring Director Cliff Ahrens, K0CA.

Unopposed for recent terms were Atlantic Division Director Tom Abernethy, W3TOM; Delta Division Director David Norris, K5UZ; Delta Division Vice Director Ed Hudgens, WB4RHQ; Great Lakes Division Director Dale Williams, WA8EFK; Great Lakes Division Vice Director Tom Delaney, W8WTD, and Midwest Division Vice Director knack Zygielbaum, K0AIZ.

All successful candidates launch recent 3-year terms on January 1, 2018.

Status Report: The professional Radio Parity Act of 2017

The professional Radio Parity Act of 2017 - S. 1534 is alive, but with legislative action slowed to a glacial pace on Capitol Hill in recent months, there's been no real progress to report since this past summer. At present, the bill is under consideration by the US Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, and it remains an lively concern for ARRL. The League is working diligently to shiver the bill loose and gallop it forward.

While it may flaunt that time is short, S. 1534 does not need to pass the Senate by year's end. The bill remains in play until the current session of Congress adjourns, which doesn't befall until December 31, 2018. Once the bill has been passed by both chambers, the FCC would noiseless hold to implement its essence in the piece 97 professional Service rules.

Introduced on July 12, S. 1534 marked another step forward for the landmark legislation. Senators Roger Wicker (R-MS) and Richard Blumenthal (D-CT) sponsored the bill in the Senate. The US House version of the legislation, HR 555, passed the House of Representatives by unanimous consent terminal January.

FCC Dismisses Radio Amateur's Petition to Revise call note Rules

The FCC has dismissed a rule-making petition filed terminal May by Thomas J. Alessi, K1TA, of Stamford, Connecticut, that sought to amend the piece 97 rules regarding professional Radio Service call signs. The Commission action came in a November 28 note from Scot Stone, Deputy Chief of the FCC Wireless Telecommunications Bureau Mobility Division. Alessi had asked the FCC to execute call signs consisting of one letter, followed by two digits, followed by one note (1 xx 1 format) available to professional Extra-class licensees. Alessi asserted that the number of professional Extra-class licensees who wish short call signs exceeds the available supply of 1 x 2 and 2 x 1 call signs, and that his device would execute available an additional 7,800 four-character call signs.

"Approximately fifteen million call signs are presently available in the sequential call note system, but it does not include every professional call note that has been allocated to the United States," Stone wrote in denying Alessi's petition. He furthermore pointed out that the FCC had rejected a similar suggestion in 2010 that would hold made inescapable additional call signs, including 1 xx 1 call signs, available to professional Extra-class licensees, but concluded at the time that enough call signs were already available for every professional Radio licensee to obtain an acceptable call sign. In addition, the FCC said in 2010 that it had no plans to revisit the issue.

"You hold not demonstrated any changed circumstances or other intuition that would warrant revisiting this decision," Stone's note concluded.

ARRL Board of Directors Publicly Censures Southwestern Division Director

Acting on a recommendation of its Ethics and Elections Committee, the ARRL Board of Directors has publicly censured one of its own -- ARRL Southwestern Director Dick Norton, N6AA. On an 11-3 vote, with one member abstaining, the Board adopted a resolution to censure Norton for criticizing the ARRL Code of Conduct for Board members at an professional Radio gathering "by virtue of his characterizations thereof, thus criticizing publicly the collective action of the Board of Directors adopting said Code of Conduct and drawing the Board's collective determination making into disrepute." The Board admonished Norton that no further similar deportment would live tolerated.

The resolution cited "multiple portions of the Code of Conduct" that Norton was found to hold violated. The Board's action related to a complaint filed with the Ethics and Elections Committee by an ARRL member. The Board met in special session by teleconference on November 14 to deem the matter.

According to the resolution, fellow Board members had cautioned Norton that "his actions and his manner" in criticizing the Code of Conduct for Board members were "not acceptable and cannot continue, with no notable change in his deportment since that time."

Norton had been provided with a copy of the Ethics and Elections Committee resolution, dated September 7, 2017, and responded to it in writing, accompanied by statements of four ARRL members who supported his response.

The Board found that Norton's violation of the ARRL Code of Conduct had "caused harm to the League" and provided adequate intuition to publicly censure Norton for "unacceptable deportment as an ARRL Board member."

The minutes of the special ARRL Board of Directors meeting hold been posted on the ARRL website.

The Doctor Will notice You Now!

"Coaxial Cable vs. Balanced Lines" is the topic of the recent (November 9) episode of the "ARRL The Doctor is In" podcast. Listen...and learn!

Sponsored by DX Engineering, "ARRL The Doctor is In" is an informative discussion of everything things technical. Listen on your computer, tablet, or smartphone -- whenever and wherever you like!

Every 2 weeks, your host, QST Editor-in-Chief Steve Ford, WB8IMY, and the Doctor himself, Joel Hallas, W1ZR, will discuss a broad purview of technical topics. You can furthermore e-mail your questions to doctor@arrl.org, and the Doctor may reply them in a future podcast.

Enjoy "ARRL The Doctor is In" on Apple iTunes, or by using your iPhone or iPad podcast app (just search for "ARRL The Doctor is In"). You can furthermore listen online at Blubrry, or at Stitcher (free registration required, or browse the site as a guest) and through the free Stitcher app for iOS, Kindle, or Android devices. If you've never listened to a podcast before, download their beginner's guide.

Just ahead: "Listener Mailbag."

Major recent Edition of The ARRL Handbook is Now Available!

The 2018 edition of The ARRL Handbook for Radio Communications has undergone a complete makeover and is now available. First published in 1926, the most widely used one-stop reference and guide to radio technology principles and practices over the years since has documented the state-of-the-art in professional Radio as well as emerging technologies in radio experimentation, discovery, and achievement. The 95th edition of The Handbook has been extensively updated, and includes significant recent content. Each chapter has been authored and edited by experts in the subject. ARRL CEO Tom Gallagher, NY2RF, is promoting The Handbook as a valuable resource for recent and veteran hams alike.

"For recent hams, you will live amazed at how quickly you become familiar, not only with the theory, but furthermore with the practical aspects of radio -- from long waves to microwaves," he said. "For experienced hams, you're in for a dumbfound and delight when you notice the extent of the latest revisions. This edition is the most comprehensive revision since the 2014 edition."

Readers can download a fully searchable, digital edition of the Handbook, plus expanded supplemental content, software, PC board templates, and other uphold files.

The Handbook is not just for radio amateurs. For years now, it's proved to live a valuable resource for professionals and students in radio and communication technology, electrical engineering, data communication, physics, and geophysics.

New projects in the 2018 edition include VHF/UHF/Microwave Filters and Transmission Lines; Software-Controlled and Manual Preselectors for 1.8-30 MHz; Digital Mode Audio-Based VOX/PTT Interface; PICAXE-Based Timer; 6-Meter Halo Antenna; ample Wheel VHF/UHF Mobile Antenna, and an Off-Center End-Fed Portable 40-6 Meter Antenna.

Readers of the 2018 edition of The Handbook will furthermore find recent and updated information on software-defined radio (SDR) and digital signal processing (DSP), grounding and bonding, Solar Cycle 24-25, tower safety, and remote-control station building.

The ARRL Handbook is available in hardcover and softcover editions from the ARRL Store or your ARRL Dealer. Hardcover: ARRL Order No. 0727, ISBN 978-1-62595-072-7, $59.95 retail. Softcover: ARRL Order No. 0710, ISBN 978-1-62595-071-0, $49.95 retail. call (860) 594-0355 or, toll-free in the US, (888) 277-5289.

Sign Up for ARRL's 12 Days of Deals!

We're making a list and checking it twice. birth Monday, December 4, 2017, ARRL will live offering 12 days of deals. Subscribe by entering your name, call sign, and e-mail address in the fields provided. You'll receive an e-mail every day for 12 days with a special online deal. Each deal is convincing for 1 day only at www.arrl.org/shop.

ARRL's 12 days of deals concludes Friday, December 15, 2017.

Sign up now, and unwrap a recent deal every day!

AO-91 Commissioned, Declared Open for professional Use!

AMSAT-NA's latest professional Radio CubeSat, RadFxSat (Fox-1B), now known as AO-91, has been opened for common use. AMSAT Engineering officially announced that AO-91 was ready for expend at 0650 UTC on Thanksgiving Day, November 23. AMSAT VP of Engineering, Jerry Buxton, N0JY, turned over operation to cost Hammond, N8MH, and AMSAT Operations during a contact on the AO-91 repeater during the pass over the Eastern US, AMSAT said in a bulletin.

The latest CubeSat in the Fox progression was launched on November 18 from Vandenberg Air accommodate ground in California. Telemetry is downlinked via the DUV sub-audible telemetry stream, which can live decoded using FoxTelem software.

A 1U CubeSat, RadFxSat (Fox-1B) is a joint mission of AMSAT and the Institute for Space and Defense Electronics (ISDE) at Vanderbilt University. AMSAT constructed the comfort of the satellite, including the spaceframe, on-board computer, and power system. The professional Radio package is similar to that currently on orbit on AO-85, with an uplink on 435.250 MHz (67.0 Hz CTCSS) and a downlink on 145.960 MHz. -- Thanks to AMSAT intelligence Service

Amateur Radio-Carrying D-Star One CubeSat among Spacecraft Apparently Lost

The first professional Radio satellite to employ the D-Star digital voice and data format -- D-Star One -- was among about 20 secondary payloads lost on November 28 after an otherwise nominal launch of a three-stage Soyuz 2.1 booster from the recent Vostochny Cosmodrome in the far reaches of eastern Russia.

The mission carried the Russian Meteor M2-1 satellite -- the primary payload -- as well as a Canadian Telestar experimental satellite, and 17 other secondary payloads, including D-Star One. According to reports, a frailty occurred in the sophisticated and autonomous Fregat upper stage, which, after separating from the launch vehicle, inserts multiple spacecraft into their respective orbits. A so-called "space tug," Fregat has been in service for nearly 2 decades and has suffered three previous failures. Russian space agency Roscosmos is investigating the Fregat failure.

D-Star One, the first German commercial CubeSat, carried four communication modules, two designated for professional Radio use.

D-Star One was developed by German Orbital Systems in cooperation with the Czech company iSky Technology as piece of a device to eventually assemble a low-Earth orbit communication network.

"Hopefully, we'll gain another desultory to utilize D-Star communications with a satellite repeater sometime in the future," Wayne Day, N5WD, commented on the AMSAT-BB.

The Fregat upper stage functions as an orbital vehicle in its own privilege to access a purview of orbital configurations through a progression of "burns." Made up of six spherical tanks arrayed in a circle, Fregat is "independent from the lower three stages, having its own guidance, navigation, control, tracking, and telemetry systems," according to Gunter's Space Page.

The November 28 launch was only the second from the recent cosmodrome.

IARU Cites Progress Toward 50 MHz Region 1 Allocation

The International professional Radio Union (IARU) says "significant progress" was made during World Radiocommunication Conference 2019 (WRC-19) preparations that took status earlier this month at International Telecommunication Union (ITU) Headquarters in Geneva. But the IARU cautioned that a lot remains to live done before the "reservations and concerns of regulators and spectrum users are adequately satisfied."

For the team representing IARU in Working Party 5A (WP 5A) of ITU Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R), the main focus was on the WRC-19 agenda item that will deem an professional Radio allocation in Region 1 from 50 to 54 MHz that is similar to the one available in Regions 2 and 3. The current, mainly secondary, allocation of 50-52 MHz in most European countries is a regional agreement. Delegates to the meeting considered input documents from IARU, France, the Russian Federation, and Switzerland. A harsh consensus was achieved on the text that will provide the technical basis for discussions concerning the access to 50-54 MHz for the professional Service in Region 1.

Other key issues affecting the professional Service that remain to live addressed prior to WRC-19 include securing protection for professional Service primary allocations at 24 GHz and 47 GHz and minimizing feasible interference arising from Wireless Power Transmission (WPT) for the charging of electric vehicles. Read more. -- Thanks to the IARU

JOTA "Alive and Doing Well," Although 2017 Participation Down from terminal Year

Nearly 8,000 Scouts got on the air for the 60th Jamboree on the Air (JOTA) over the third weekend in October, National JOTA Coordinator Jim Wilson, K5ND, said. This week, Wilson released the 2017 JOTA report, which declared, "Radio Scouting and Jamboree on the Air are alive and doing well." Facilitating the October JOTA activity were more than 900 radio amateurs at 525 stations.

"Propagation wasn't their friend, but, even so, [radio amateurs in] almost 90 countries and everything 50 states engaged in conversations with Scouts during the weekend," Wilson said. "In addition to HF, VHF, and UHF, many professional Radio digital modes were in use, as well as online Jamboree on the Internet channels."

The tally for JOTA 2017 was 7,872 Scouts on the air, which, Wilson pointed out, was down from the 10,761 who took piece in JOTA 2016, but more in line with 2015's participation. Reports were filed by 226 JOTA locations.

"The Boy Scouts of America National Radio Scouting Committee will live exploring several improvement projects for 2018," Wilson said. These would include establishing a JOTA Frequency task accommodate to explore updated frequency listing and operating recommendations, looking into recent ways to alert participants in real time about other JOTA stations that are on the air.

This puerile Boy Scout got on the air at a JOTA station hosted by the Huntsville professional Radio Club (K4BFT)

The Radio Scouting Committee's drudgery in 2017 resulted in the introduction of recent Radio Merit Badge requirements, which included a recent option for professional Radio Direction Finding (ARDF) -- or "foxhunting." The panel furthermore developed documents to abet Scout leaders incorporate radio and JOTA in their unit activities.

Wilson pointed out that the K2BSA operation at the 2017 National Scout Jamboree in July introduced professional Radio to nearly 2,500 Scouts, with 305 earning the Radio Merit Badge.

Year-Long NASA On The Air Event Kicks off on December 11

The professional Radio clubs at National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) centers around the US hold invited the professional Radio community to connect the NASA On The Air (NOTA) special event. NOTA gets under pass in December and continues through December 2018. In addition to being the agency's 60th anniversary, 2018 will cost 50 years since NASA orbited the first human around the moon, and 20 years since the first elements of the International Space Station (ISS) were launched into low-Earth orbit.

The Marshall Space Flight Center's NN4SA is one of the NASA seat stations that will live lively during NOTA.

Starting on Monday, December 11, 2017, professional Radio club stations at various NASA centers and facilities will live on the air with special event operations to celebrate these monumental achievements, as well as current milestones. Some clubs will proffer commemorative QSL cards, and a special certificate will live available indicating the number of NASA club stations worked on various bands and modes.

"We device to hold a web-based system for you to check your points total and download a printable certificate at the stay of the event in December 2018," the NASA announcement said. "Points will live awarded for each seat worked on each corps and mode (phone, CW, digital, and 'space' modes -- satellites, meteor scatter, EME, ISS APRS)." That would, of course, include contacts with any of the professional Radio stations on the ISS.

Key anniversaries during NOTA include the 45th anniversary of Apollo 17 on December 11, 2017, which kicks off the event; NASA's founding on July 29, 1958; the 20th anniversary of the ISS first element launch on November 20, 1998; the 20th anniversary of the ISS Node 1 Launch on December 4, 1998, and the 50th anniversary of Apollo 8 -- launched on December 21, 1968, and returned on December 27 -- marking the stay of the event.

More information is on the NASA On The Air website. Participating professional Radio clubs and the NOTA event are independent of -- and not officially sponsored by -- NASA. Read more. -- Thanks to Rob Suggs, KB5EZ, NASA Marshall Space Flight seat professional Radio Club (NN4SA), and Kevin Zari, KK4YEL, NASA Kennedy Space seat professional Radio Club (N1KSC).

Ulrich Rohde, N1UL, Receives Wireless Innovation Forum Leadership Award

The oft-honored Ulrich Rohde, N1UL, is the recipient of the Wireless Innovation Forum Leadership Award (formerly International Achievement Award). The award recognizes "especially significant contributions in furthering the global mission of the Wireless Innovation Forum." A prolific technical author, academic, and engineer, Rohde is a partner of Rohde & Schwarz in Munich, Germany, and chairman of Synergy Microwave Corporation, in Paterson, recent Jersey.

While working under an RCA US Department of Defense contract in 1982, Rohde's department developed the first software-defined radio (SDR), which used the COSMAC (complementary symmetry monolithic array computer) chip. Rohde was among the first to present publicly on this topic with his 1985 talk, "Digital HF Radio: A Sampling of Techniques," at the Third International Conference on HF Communication Systems and Techniques in London.

"Since then, Rohde has actively driven innovation in the domain of SDR, both in industry and academia," the Award announcement said. Rohde holds some 50 patents. In December 2016, Rohde was invited to deliver the Sir J.C. Bose Memorial Lecture on "Next-Generation Networks: Software-Defined Radio -- Emerging Trends," at IEEE Hyderabad, India. In the 2017 edition of Communications Receivers, Rohde and his co-authors set SDR at the core of modern communications systems design.

A project in which Rohde & Schwarz is involved was furthermore honored. The Wireless Innovation Forum conferred its Technology of the Year award on the German Armed Forces Joint Composite Radio materiel Project; Rohde & Schwarz is lead industry partner.

Winners were announced at the Wireless Innovation Forum Conference on Communications Technologies and Software-Defined Radio (WInnComm 2017), held in San Diego November 15-17.

In Brief...

Canada's Polar Prince WSPR beacon will ID with a recent call note on the revert leg of its voyage. With the successful completion of the Canada C3 Expedition via the Northwest Passage that culminated with the arrival of the Polar Prince in Victoria, British Columbia, the CG3EXP special event call note has been retired. The Polar Prince will continue to carry an Ultimate 3 WSPR beacon as the ship returns to the East Coast via the Panama Canal, identifying as VE0EXP. The CG3EXP WSPR beacon transmitted on 20, 30, and 40 meters. Anyone with an HF receiver and the free WSPR application may live able to receive the VE0EXP signal and track the vessel's location on WSPRnet. -- Thanks to Radio Amateurs of Canada

Statistics attest that the professional Radio population in the UK has grown by approximately 10% over the past 5 years. According to telecommunications regulator Ofcom, as of the stay of August 2017, there were 52,195 replete licensees, 9,739 Intermediate licensees, and 22,649 Foundation licensees. Figures recently released in response to a freedom of Information request from Peter Bowyer, G4MJS, covered the epoch from June 2010 and August 2017. The statistics furthermore justify 803 Reciprocal licensees in June 2016. Overseas visitors result not need a Reciprocal license, if they are visiting the UK for up to 3 months from CEPT T/R 61-01 signatory countries such as the US, Canada, Australia, recent Zealand, or CEPT signatories in Europe. Ofcom previously issued Reciprocal license holders with call signs that were indistinguishable from replete license call signs; Ofcom now uses the term "Full (Temporary Reciprocal) Licence." In response to a freedom of Information request for a list of available (unassigned) professional Radio call signs from Derek Flewin, 2W0FLW, Ofcom responded, "We no longer hold a list of available professional Radio call signs, as they now expend a system that randomly allocates call signs upon request."

ARISS has announced that the MAI-75 Slow-Scan (SSTV) system on the ISS will live on the air starting on December 5 at around 1500 UTC and continuing until December 6 at 0900 UTC, transmitting test images on 145.800 MHz FM that should live available worldwide. SSTV activity on December 7 and 8 is scheduled to occur at times when the ISS is above Moscow. In the past images hold been sent in PD180 mode, with a 3-minute off time between each image. The SSTV system is in the Russian Service Module of the International Space Station (ISS). -- Thanks to ARISS

SKYWARN™ Recognition Day (SRD) takes status on Saturday, December 2, from 0000 until 2400 UTC (starts on the evening of Friday, December 1, in US time zones). During the SKYWARN Special Event, operators at stations set up in National Weather Service (NWS) offices will contact radio amateurs around the world. Participating stations will exchange a brief description of their current weather with as many NWS-based stations as feasible on 80, 40, 20, 15, 10, 6, and 2 meters, plus 70 centimeters. Repeater contacts are permitted. SRD was developed jointly in 1999 by the NWS and ARRL to celebrate the contributions SKYWARN volunteers execute to the NWS mission -- the protection of life and property.

The K7RA Solar Update

Tad Cook, K7RA, Seattle, reports: The outlook for the near term shows solar flux at 72, 71, and 69 for November 30-December 2, 68 on December 3-6; 70 and 71 on December 7-8; 72 on December 9-12; 74 on December 13; 75 on December 14-16; 74 on December 17; 73 on December 18-20; 74 on December 21-22; 76 on December 23-29; 72 on December 30-31; 70 on January 1-3; 71 on January 4; 72 on January 5-8; 74 on January 9; 75 on January 10-12, and 74 on January 13.

The predicted planetary A index is 10, 6, 5, and 5 on November 30-December 3; 32, 36, 18, 20, and 10 on December 4-8; 5 on December 9-10; 12, 15, 12, and 8 on December 11-14; 5 on December 15-16; 8, 25, and 10 on December 17-19; 8 on December 20-21; 5 on December 22-23; 15 on December 24; 12 on December 25-27; 8 on December 28; 5 on December 29-30; 35, 40, 28, 20, and 10 on December 31-January 4; 5 on January 5-6; 12, 15, 12, 8, and 5 on January 7-11, and 8 on January 12-13.

Sunspot numbers for November 23 through 29, 2017 were 0, 0, 13, 15, 15, 14, and 12, with a intend of 9.9. The 10.7-centimeter flux was 72.4, 74.1, 74.3, 75.5, 73.6, 71.9, and 72.6, with a intend of 73.5. Estimated planetary A indices were 9, 10, 7, 3, 5, 8, and 5, with a intend of 6.7. Estimated mid-latitude A indices were 7, 8, 4, 2, 4, 6, and 4, with a intend of 5.

Send me your reports and observations.

Getting It Right

Ross Primrose, N4RP, took issue with their awkward and vague wording of a sentence in the chronicle "International Grid Chase Will Allow expend of 630 and 2200 Meters" in the November 16 edition of The ARRL Letter. They should hold said, "If UTC does not respond within 30 days or does not specifically disaffirm access, these stations may commence operation there."

The announcement for the 2017 ARRL 10 Meter Contest, as published in November 2017 QST (p. 94) contains incorrect information. Participants may choose to operate CW, Phone, or Mixed. Stations in the Mixed category may drudgery stations on both modes for contact credit -- i.e., once on CW, and once on phone.

Just Ahead in Radiosport

  • December 1-3 -- ARRL 160-Meter Contest (CW)

  • December 2 -- Wake-Up! QRP Sprint (CW)

  • December 2-3 -- TOPS Activity Contest (CW)

  • December 2-3 -- EPC Ukraine DX Contest (Digital)

  • December 3 -- Ten-Meter RTTY Contest

  • December 3 -- SARL Digital Contest

  • December 5 -- ARS Spartan Sprint (CW)

  • December 7 -- 1.8 QRP ARCI Topband Sprint (CW)

  • December 7 -- NRAU 10-Meter Activity Contest (CW, phone, digital)

  • See the ARRL Contest Calendar for more information. For in-depth reporting on professional Radio contesting, subscribe to The ARRL Contest Update via your ARRL member profile e-mail preferences.

    Upcoming ARRL Section, State, and Division Conventions

  • December 2 -- Arkansas DX Association's 50th Anniversary Convention, North microscopic Rock, Arkansas

  • December 8-9 -- West Central Florida Section Convention, Plant City, Florida

  • January 6 -- recent York City-Long Island Section Convention, Brookville, recent York

  • January 13 -- Georgia ARES Convention, Forsyth, Georgia

  • January 19-20 -- North Texas Section Convention, Forest Hill, Texas

  • January 20 -- GARS TECHFEST Convention, Lawrenceville, Georgia

  • January 21-27 -- Quartzfest Convention, Quartzsite, Arizona

  • January 26-27 -- Delta Division Convention, Jackson, Mississippi

  • Find conventions and hamfests in your area.

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    Deforestation-linked Brazilian beef noiseless flowing into international markets: report | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

  • More than 200 million cattle live and graze in Brazil, bringing US $123 billion into the country’s economy annually. However, 80 percent of recent deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon is caused by the conversion of forest to cattle pasture.
  • While international beef retailers hold worked to decouple their markets from cattle-driven deforestation, a recent report shows that a need of traceability and transparency of the cattle supply chain continues to thwart their efforts.
  • A major loophole: cattle are owned over their lifetimes by several ranches. But current policies only require slaughterhouses to assure that no deforestation occurred on the ranch from which the livestock was purchased. So ranchers who intuition illegal deforestation “launder” cattle, by selling them to ranchers who don’t.
  • Experts declare that Brazil needs to adopt Uruguay’s digital traceability system whereby every cow is electronically tagged at birth and tracked along the entire supply chain. But they declare Brazil lacks the political will to establish a similar system, primarily because the government is dominated by the agribusiness lobby.
  • Ranching in Pará state, Brazil. The nation is home to more than 200 million cattle Photo credit: acmoraes on Visualhunt / CC BY

    Cattle ranching is the main driver of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, despite commitments by major producers and retailers to slit ties with harmful ranching practices, according to a report by Chain Reaction Research published in September.

    Brazil today is home to over 200 million cattle – the world’s second largest herd after India – and its ranches contribute around R $500 billion (US $123 billion) to the country’s economy each year, representing 7 percent of Brazil’s GDP in 2016.

    As a result, conversion to pastureland remains the main driver of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, and even transnational retailers that hold made commitments to eradicate deforestation from their supply chains are exposed to deforestation risk, according to a report co-authored by researchers from the sustainability consultancy Aidenvironment, the non-profit organization Profundo, and the environmental policy consultancy Climate Advisers.

    The joint research project looked in detail at the “link between the beef sector in Brazil and its role in deforestation on the one hand, and the top retailers as key sales channels for beef in Brazil on the other hand,” says co-author Barbara Kuepper, Senior Researcher in Sustainable Supply Chains at Profundo.

    The team used data from a report published in 2017 by Brazilian NGO Imazon, the Institute of Man and the Environment of Amazonia, linking Amazonian deforestation to specific meatpackers, as well as publicly available monitoring data collected by Pará state, and other published data on cattle-driven deforestation in Brazil.

    Land cleared for cattle in Mato Grosso state, Brazil. Cattle ranching continues to live the primary driver of recent deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Photo credit: GRIDArendal on Visualhunt.com / CC BY-NC-SA

    According to a recent report by Imazon, pastures occupy about 80 percent of the deforested area converted to agricultural land in the Brazilian Amazon since 2014. The industry has furthermore been linked to slavery, corruption, greenhouse gas emissions and lofty water use. The recent report identified numerous connections between retailers and meatpackers that purchase cattle from Amazonian regions with lofty deforestation risk, including JBS, Minerva Foods, Marfrig, Masterboi and Boi forte – the document directly linked JBS and Masterboi with recent deforestation in Pará.

    Deforestation dropped dramatically in the Brazilian Amazon between 2006 and 2013, the result of willful agreements such as the Soy Moratorium (negotiated between commodities companies, environmental NGOs and the government).

    However, since 2014, and especially after 2016 and the climb of President Michel Temer, the administrative branch, legislative branch, and the nation’s supreme court, hold increasingly moved to relax environmental laws including Brazil’s Forest Code, introducing an amnesty on illegal deforestation fines, and reducing funding to environmental agencies, causing deforestation rates to increase.

    This “is a hazardous combination that [means] … cleared land is worth more than forested land and the risk of punishment for illegal clearing is low, while on the other hand economic incentives to protect forests are missing,” says Kuepper. A newly released analysis of satellite data by Imazon shows that Amazon deforestation is continuing to climb, with 545 square kilometers (210 square miles) of clearing in August alone.

    This comes despite government efforts to decouple ranching and deforestation, initiated in 2009 by the Brazilian Federal Prosecutor’s Office through its federally enforced Terms of Adjustment of Conduct (TACs). By 2016, TACs had been signed by 63 of 128 lively slaughterhouses that export Brazilian beef, with the firms agreeing to eradicate deforestation from their supply chains.

    Meat for sale in São Paulo, Brazil; 81 percent of the beef produced in Brazil is eaten by Brazilian consumers. Photo credit: wallyg on Visualhunt.com / CC BY-NC-ND

    Three companies: JBS, Minerva and Marfrig, are answerable for 70 percent of cattle-slaughtering capacity in the Brazilian Amazon, the report finds, everything of which hold signed TACs. Mongabay reached out to these companies for observation but received no reply. The remaining one third of meatpacking for export is noiseless is in the hands of companies lacking no-deforestation agreements.

    “Retailers hasten a lofty risk from sourcing from slaughterhouses that hold not signed a TAC,” Kuepper says, potentially exposing themselves to sheer fines and negative responses from investors and customers.

    However, the participation or non-participation in TAC agreements does microscopic to curb deforestation by cattle producers. A stunning 8.3 million hectares (32,000 square miles) of forest clearing took status between 2010 and 2015 within the buying ranges of slaughterhouses were TAC signatories, the report finds. In fact, TAC slaughterhouses hold been directly linked to illegal deforestation in Pará state.

    A key deforestation loophole: a mandatory digital or paper Animal Transit guide (GTA) is retained at every ranch each time an animal is relocated. However, these records are not linked together, nor can they live easily tracked. As a result, cattle arriving at slaughterhouses typically only identify the terminal ranch in an often-lengthy supply chain, unless each producer in the chain provides that slaughterhouse with an access code giving entry to the record. Ranchers operating on illegally deforested land simply “launder” their cattle by stirring them to a ranch with a cleanly deforestation record before final transport to the slaughterhouse.

    “No meat processor or retailer is deforestation-free because the ones that hold signed agreements hold no replete traceability system,” says Paulo Barreto, Imazon’s senior researcher in forestry engineering, who was not involved in the recent report.

    Cattle expend as much as 75 percent of their lives on intermediate ranches not recorded on the final GTA, allowing deforestation-linked beef to easily enter the supply chain. “This confirms the urgency of creating [full] transparency and traceability,” says Kuepper.

    Amazon rainforest cleared by burning, the primary means of converting forests into pastureland. Photo credit: bbcworldservice on Visualhunt.com / CC BY-NC

    The government has taken some actions to close the deforestation loophole: IBAMA, Brazil’s federal environmental agency, has published a list of embargoed ranches answerable for illegal deforestation, and slaughterhouses that buy from them are at risk of fines. Likewise, CAR, the Brazilian rustic Environmental Registry, collects data on rustic property boundaries and neighboring protected areas – data that IBAMA uses in combinations with satellite monitoring to detect illegal deforestation on ranches.

    However, the majority of Brazilian states hold failed to provide replete CAR data to IBAMA – Pará is the only situation that publishes such data – making it difficult to detect lawbreakers.

    Tracing individual cows from ranch to retailer would live the best option for eliminating deforestation-linked beef from the Brazilian supply chain, says Kuepper. “With enough willingness among supply chain players this would no doubt live possible,” she says, a step that would abet assure retailer and customer loyalty.

    Uruguay shows just what such a system could glance like. Following a devastating cattle foot and mouth outbreak in 2001, the country developed a digital traceability system, known as the National Livestock Information System (SNIG). Today, every cow raised in Uruguay is electronically tagged at birth and tracked along the entire length of the supply chain as piece of a government-funded program.

    Cattle on a ranch in Pará state. Decoupling livestock production from deforestation will require replete traceability and transparency of the beef supply chain, a goal that has already been achieved in Uruguay. Experts declare that a need of political will prevents implementation of a similar initiative in Brazil. Photo credit: acmoraes on VisualHunt / CC BY

    The Brazilian Bovine and Bubaline Identification and Certification System (SISBOV), is an ear-tag based tracking system developed in 2002 in response to European Union demand for deforestation-free beef. But for most retailers, the incentives to connect the system just aren’t there, Barreto claims. That’s because exports are only a diminutive piece of the Brazilian Beef market – 81 percent of Brazilian beef is consumed in-country – so the SISBOV initiative currently includes just 0.5 percent of ranches.

    “Brazilian ranchers will only [participate if a program is] mandated by [government] regulation or demanded by the market,” says Barreto.

    “Political willingness remains one of the key stumbling blocks,” agrees Kuepper. Analysts declare that the future of Brazilian environmental policy rests with newly elected president Jair Bolsonaro, whose ultra-right statements are often strongly anti-environmental and pro-agribusiness.

    “The overall scenario is not good,” says Barreto.

    Agricultural policy furthermore continues to live heavily influenced by the bancada ruralista in the Congress, Kuepper says, noting that this legislative caucus “may gain even more powerful after the October elections,” which “is worrying given their track record of pushing an agenda to weaken environmental laws.” President elect Bolsonaro has since formed an alliance with the ruralists.

    Counter intuitively, an analysis by NGOs shows that with proper management, agribusiness production levels could live maintained and even increased without any recent Amazon deforestation. The recent report estimates that Brazilian pastureland is currently operating at just one-third of its potential capacity. Therefore, improving cattle ranch efficiency could mitigate pressure on primary forest.

    Toward that end, earlier this year, Carrefour Brasil, a French transnational retailer announced that it was investing US $2 million in a joint initiative with the Sustainable Trade Initiative (IDH) covering 156,000 hectares (602 square miles) in Mato Grosso situation to restore degraded pastureland, intensify ranching practices, and proffer assistance to farmers to comply with Brazil’s Forest Code.

    “Livestock productivity could spare land and augment production to supply growing demand for several years,” agrees Barreto. But to protect forests over the longer term as the global population soars toward nine billion people, “we need to deem a transition to eating less animal protein in common and especially beef.” With global beef consumption rising, especially in China, Japan and the comfort of Asia, that could live a tall order.

    Update: This article has been updated to reflect the outcome of the Brazilian election and the announced replacement of Blairo Maggi as agriculture minister.

    FEEDBACK: expend this shape to dispatch a message to the author of this post. If you want to post a public comment, you can result that at the bottom of the page.

    Agriculture, Amazon Agriculture, Amazon Conservation, Amazon Destruction, Cattle, Cattle Pasture, Cattle Ranching, Corruption, Deforestation, Drivers Of Deforestation, Environment, Environmental Crime, Environmental Politics, Forests, Green, Industrial Agriculture, Land Conflict, Land Grabbing, Land Rights, Land expend Change, Rainforest Deforestation, Rainforest Destruction, Rainforests, Saving The Amazon, Threats To The Amazon, Tropical Deforestation

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