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The Open group structure Framework or TOGAF certification is without doubt one of the most outstanding vital requirement for each enterprise architects. To develop into excel in the TOGAF 9.2, it is crucial to endure preempt practising to fullfil replete Open neighborhood’s requirements.
The Open group architecture Framework (TOGAF) become developed as an enterprise architecture framework for software construction. It’s meant to help the progress procedure with the aid of assisting corporations create a more systematic strategy to prick back blunders, reside within funds and align IT with different enterprise gadgets.
in keeping with PayScale, the regular income for an IT commerce architect is $128,000 per 12 months, however for those with a TOGAF certification, it jumps just about 8 p.c to around $138,000 per year. The certification isn’t just for IT enterprise architects, it’s moreover designed for solutions architects, software architects and IT administrators. The certification will uphold validate your potential to keep TOGAF to facts, commercial enterprise applications, expertise and company goals — plus, it may well enhance your revenue.
There are two respectable TOGAF certifications provided during the Open community — degree 1 and degree 2. To earn your degree 1 certification, you're going to should flow a 60-minute examination inclusive of forty multiple option questions that cowl the fundamentals of TOGAF. To earn your stage 2 certification, you’ll ought to circulate a ninety-minute examination with eight scenario questions to be able to drill your TOGAF competencies to real-world eventualities.
The TOGAF 9 consists of over seven hundred pages of cloth, so in case you’re making an attempt to accelerate the certification assessments, you’ll want to coincide with a practising or prep path to assist you be sensible of what to focal point on. listed here are 10 courses as a pass to prepare you for each tiers of TOGAF 9 certification.
EA Principals presents a mixed practicing route that covers substances for each ranges of TOGAF 9 certification. The course covers every microscopic thing you should find out about TOGAF 9 and commerce structure. classes will moreover be attended in grownup, with on-website areas in most essential cities. although, if you can’t get it to a category, EA Principals additionally presents are vital online classes so one can provide the identical event from domestic. Plus you’ll score hold of two exam vouchers with the route payment to comprehensive half one and two of the exam.
Edureka presents an online category with teacher-led classes, true-life case stories, result exams, lifetime access and a neighborhood discussion board to join with different professionals. courses are held every weekend over the direction of five weeks, with an ordinary ail of six to seven hours per week. lessons comprise arms-on assignments and case experiences as a pass to uphold you keep training to real-life scenarios.
eLearning Launchpad offers a TOGAF 9 training course for each the plane 1 and plane 2 checks. that you would be able to attend a private path on-line or on-site at any of their U.S. locations — classes can moreover be one-on-one or with groups of two to 15 people. that you may additionally choose to rob a public on-line course that runs for 3 days. The can saturate of the checks are included in the cost of the course and it includes a 2d-chance exam Retake get unavoidable that permits you to like a 2nd shot if you don’t accelerate the primary time.
global edge offers a TOGAF 9 certification prep direction that may moreover be attended in-grownup, reside online or accessed through on-demand content. The route covers everything you deserve to understand in regards to the TOGAF framework, together with ADM phases, architect governance, content metamodels, SOA structure and maturity fashions, amongst other issues.
good e-studying offers a direction it's approved by using The Open group — it includes a free mixed examination voucher and round-the-clock tutor aid. The path covers the basics of the TOGAF framework and every microscopic thing you’ll should be sensible of to circulate both assessments. It’s designed to train you every microscopic thing from the basics and core concepts to advanced ideas like governance and compliance.
studying Tree queer presents on-line and in-grownup lessons that rob district over four days. The path covers the fundamentals of the TOGAF framework and how it supports commerce structure. The course specializes in applying TOGAF in the office through reference fashions, ADM instructions, top-quality practices and ensuring compliance, among other topic matters.
PluralSight presents a practicing route that presents an “accelerated and unique insurance” of the TOGAF 9 framework. It’s designed for any one that works with commerce architecture or these seeking to pass the certification checks for TOGAF 9. PluralSight doesn’t present one-off lessons so you’ll need to subscribe for a monthly fee. youngsters, they present a free 10-day affliction to are attempting out a direction earlier than you commit.
Simplilearn offers a TOGAF 9 training route that covers each examination stages — it focuses on the concepts, terminology, structure and concepts of TOGAF 9. on-line classroom flexi-pass offers 90 days of access to teacher-led courses and 180 days of entry to self-paced gaining lore of content material designed through industry leaders and experts. The direction is authorised by The Open neighborhood and the fee comprises the cost of each exams.
if you don’t wish to rob a course and as a substitute need to prepare yourself for the examination, which you can utilize the TOGAF 9 certification self-study pack. It’s free during the Open group and it will uphold you dissect for each tests, with out outside aid. in case you like already got a grasp on the TOGAF 9 framework and you just want to skim up on the basics earlier than you're taking the exams, the free self-analyze pack is an excellent option.
Udemy presents a TOGAF certification course that covers every thing you deserve to recognize to pass stage 1 and a pair of of the TOGAF 9 certification. It’s delivered in on-demand videos, with just below two hours of content material. You’ll additionally score two drill assessments for degree 1 and one other drill examination for degree 2. besides the video clips and apply assessments, you’ll score hold of an in depth clarification of each scenario question. The direction doesn't cowl the saturate of the exam, so you’ll must finances for that one by one.
network applicationPress free up summary:
the usage of APG TOGAF(TM) manner Library (ATPL), conclusion-user agencies can base commerce architecture practices on TOGAF and create corporation-selected versions of TOGAF that symbolize specific company and technology atmosphere considerations. solution incorporates replete technique suggestions establish during The Open group architecture Framework (TOGAF) in sort of guidelines, ideas, and checklists. It additionally offers drudgery breakdown buildings for general's structure building method.usual Press free up: APG Releases APG TOGAF(TM) routine Library
New manner Library Achieves TOGAF device uphold Certification via The Open community
HUDSON, Wis., can moreover 19 -- Armstrong manner neighborhood (APG) announced nowadays its free up of the APG TOGAF(TM) system Library (ATPL), an resourceful and moving routine of the utilize of the business's main open commerce structure progress components and framework -- The Open group architecture Framework (TOGAF). The ATPL contains replete the routine guidance discovered throughout TOGAF (within the sort of guidelines, ideas, and checklists), in addition to drudgery breakdown buildings (WBS) for the standard's architecture building components (ADM). concurrently, the ATPL has correctly performed the requirements for TOGAF(TM) eight device uphold Certification, as centered through The Open community.
All parts of the TOGAF eight.1.1 specification are represented within the ATPL and are equipped into the identical 4 ingredients which are establish in the broadcast book, PDF and HTML versions posted through The Open group.
"With the ATPL, discontinuance user agencies now can base their enterprise structure (EA) practices on TOGAF and create organization-certain types of TOGAF that signify the considerations of their company and expertise environments," said Chris Armstrong, President of Armstrong routine group. "With the ATPL, TOGAF can now moreover be tightly integrated with other approaches, similar to IBM Rational Unified technique(R) (RUP(R)), Open Unified routine (OpenUP), Telelogic harmony(TM) strategies, ITIL(R), COBIT, apart from corporation-particular strategies."
the utilize of the Eclipse manner Framework (EPF) Composer device (an open-supply, freely purchasable device), organizations can lengthen ATPL components content material and system configurations to characterize their tailoring of TOGAF to their enterprise structure practice.
"as the Open group releases original versions of TOGAF, APG will create original versions of the ATPL, which will be freely accessible to licensed customers," mentioned Armstrong. "the flexibility of the ATPL Framework will allow handy migration of a firm's present additions and changes to the subsequent edition of TOGAF. This helps hold the investments a firm has made as original superior practices and thoughts are brought to TOGAF."
moreover, APG is restful to announce that the ATPL has done TOGAF 8 device uphold Certification from The Open neighborhood. "ATPL joins the ranks of an unique set of apparatus that dangle this certification," referred to Armstrong. "TOGAF eight device guide Certification means that the ATPL meets replete requirements for assisting the structure progress formula (ADM) and commercial enterprise Continuum. Their shoppers can be confident that they are getting a top trait product it really is aligned with this necessary commerce general." APG is the primary organization on the earth to dangle replete three TOGAF certifications for practicing, expert features, and power assist.
"with the objective to guide TOGAF's inherent skill for each enterprise to reconcile the ordinary to their particular needs after which roll it out across the enterprise in a consistent manner, many like expressed a necessity for a appliance that includes replete of the system counsel discovered throughout TOGAF and that integrates with different industry and company-particular tactics," observed Allen Brown, CEO, The Open community. "The ATPL from Armstrong process neighborhood is a tremendous step in enabling even enhanced uptake of TOGAF."
agencies drawn to learning more in regards to the ATPL and how it can be licensed for inside utilize can contact APG at email@example.com.
Armstrong process group, Inc., (APG) is dedicated to featuring proven and practical manner assistance for aligning IT capabilities with commerce routine in the course of the combination of integrated strategic routine improvement consulting, custom-made lecture leeway working towards, skilled construction items, and assignment teaching. APG is an Influencing member of the item administration community (OMG) and contributes to the UML 2.0 and SPEM 2.0 standards. APG is a member of The Open community structure forum and contributes to the continued evolution of The Open group structure Framework (TOGAF) and the IT Architect Certification (ITAC) application. APG is additionally a contributor to the Eclipse technique Framework (EPF) initiative. APG is an IBM commerce companion, an IBM independent application dealer, a Telelogic associate, and a price-delivered Reseller for Sparx systems. APG is a privately-held corporation in Hudson, Wisconsin, u . s .. For greater tips, please discern APG's website at http://www.aprocessgroup.com/.
notice: TOGAF is a trademark of The Open community. IBM Rational Unified technique and RUP are registered emblems of the overseas commerce Machines organisation. Telelogic harmony is a trademark of Telelogic AB. ITIL is a registered trademark of the UK government's workplace of executive Commerce. replete other marks are the property of APG.connected Thomas industry replace
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The Open Group's IT architecture framework certification means you know how to build enterprise applications from the ground up.
As a vendor- and technology-neutral consortium, The Open Group's vision of Boundaryless Information FlowTM enables access to integrated information, within and among enterprises, based on open standards and global interoperability. A key component in achieving this vision is The Open Group Architecture Framework or TOGAF for short.
TOGAF is a minute methodology and a set of supporting tools for developing an enterprise architecture and may be freely used by any organization wishing to develop an enterprise architecture for utilize within that organization.
TOGAF was developed by The Open Group's own members, working within the Architecture Forum, who's broader goal is to enable businesses to achieve the prerogative equipoise between IT effectiveness and commerce innovation. The original progress of TOGAF Version 1 in 1995 was based on the Technical Architecture Framework for Information Management (TAFIM), developed by the U.S. Department of Defense. The U.S. Department of Defense gave The Open Group encouragement to create TOGAF by donating TAFIM, which itself was the result of many years of progress ail and many millions of dollars of U.S. government investment.
Starting from this sound foundation, the members of The Open Group's Architecture Forum like developed successive versions of TOGAF and published each one on The Open Group's public web site. To date, over 12,000 copies of the TOGAF framework & methodology like been downloaded, and over 1,200 practitioners like been TOGAF certified.
TOGAF enables IT architects to design, evaluate, and build the prerogative architecture for their organization, and reduces the costs of planning, designing, and implementing architectures based on open systems solutions.
TOGAF in its Enterprise edition remains what it has always been, namely an architectural framework - a set of methods and tools for developing a broad range of different IT architectures. The key to TOGAF remains a reliable, practical method, know as the TOGAF Architecture progress Method, for defining commerce needs and developing an architecture that meets those needs, while utilizing the elements of TOGAF and other architectural assets available to the organization.
A number of enterprise architecture frameworks already exist and are widely recognized, each of which has its particular advantages and disadvantages, and relevance, for enterprise architecture. However, TOGAF is the only open benchmark routine for developing an enterprise architecture. The Open Group's goal with TOGAF has always been making the TOGAF architecture progress routine an open benchmark method, which is neutral towards tools and technologies. It can be used with any recognized enterprise framework, such as the Zachman Framework, FEAF, TEAF, and C4ISR/DoD Framework, that the architect feels is preempt for a particular architecture.
Detention by Customs and rim Protection is intended to be brief — 72 hours or less, according to the standards. However that guideline is often broken. Felipe Gómez Alonzo, the boy who died in December and had influenza, was in his sixth day of detention when he was taken to a hospital, according to a timeline provided by the agency.
At the hospital, Felipe was establish to like a 103-degree fever. He was discharged from the emergency leeway several hours later, and agents took him back to a temporary holding cell at a highway checkpoint. Hours later, as the boy grew sicker, no medically trained agents were on duty there. He was returned to the hospital, but lost consciousness on the way.
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Svyatoslav Kotusev follows up his previous, Somewhat controversial article, ‘Enterprise Architecture is not TOGAF’, with a more comprehensive piece on The Open Group Architecture Framework (TOGAF), the widely-used architectural framework.
In my previous article1 I reported that The Open Group Architecture Framework (TOGAF) 2, the most comprehensive and widely known enterprise architecture (EA) framework, is largely of symbolic value and essentially has nothing to enact with a successful EA practice. Unsurprisingly, the article provoked numerous comments from its readers ranging from replete agreements to total disagreements and even direct insults. Therefore, I feel obliged to clarify several critically necessary points regarding TOGAF and its relationship to existent EA practice.
Observations in this article are my personal opinions based on an extensive EA literature analysis as well as on my studies of more than two dozen Australian and international companies with varying degrees of relationship to TOGAF. Two of these companies are included in the official TOGAF list3, some of these companies pretension to be TOGAF-based, some of them simply used TOGAF as a source of lore on EA, while others are largely indifferent to TOGAF.Is TOGAF a consistent methodology or just a toolkit?
TOGAF community members currently position TOGAF as a useful toolkit for EA drill where necessary tools can be found. I argue that TOGAF was originally designed as a consistent methodology, but was subsequently repositioned to a toolkit since de facto it can be useful at best as a toolkit. For example, its original documentation clearly states that ‘[TOGAF] is a framework - a minute routine and a set of supporting tools - for developing an enterprise architecture’2 (p3).
The TOGAF Architecture progress routine (ADM) is ‘a step-by-step approach to develop and utilize an enterprise architecture’2 that ‘describes a routine for developing and managing the lifecycle of an enterprise architecture’2 (p45), ‘defines a recommended sequence for the various phases and steps involved in developing an architecture’2 (p56) and ‘forms the core of TOGAF’2 (p45). The TOGAF Architecture Content Framework (ACF) is ‘a minute model of the outputs to be created by the ADM’2 (p37) that provides ‘a minute open benchmark for how architectures should be described’2 (p34) and ‘a structural model for architectural content that allows the major drudgery products that an architect creates to be consistently defined, structured, and presented’2 (p327). ‘The ADM describes what needs to be done to create an architecture and the content framework describes what the architecture should ogle like once it is done’2 (p330).
At the identical time, the word ‘toolkit’ or similar definitions are never mentioned in the TOGAF documentation. Therefore, the original TOGAF documentation clearly describes TOGAF as a consistent methodology for EA drill describing both the processes that should be followed and the documents that should be produced as an output, not merely as a toolkit.
What is observed in existent EA practice?
I like never seen or heard of anybody who followed recommended ADM steps in any existent sense or created a significant portion of documents recommended by the ACF. Architects unanimously complain that these recommendations are too rigid and impractical. Instead architects typically developed 8-12 different documents hardly overlapping with the ACF and followed no specific iterative processes resembling the ADM. Similar findings are reported by other authors as well. ‘Our initial assumptions about TOGAF were that it would be a sort of ‘methodology’ that they could result to defer their EA, however this turned out not to be the case’4 (p63). ‘Our views on TOGAF inevitably changed as the project progressed. Working sequentially through the TOGAF [ADM] cycle ceased to get sense’4 (p48).
Consequently, TOGAF was originally designed as ‘a minute routine and a set of supporting tools’2 (p3), but has been later repositioned by the TOGAF community to be merely a ‘set of supporting tools’ since its ‘detailed method’ proved absolutely impractical.
Interestingly, the word ‘Framework’ in its title was moreover repositioned accordingly from its original to a original meaning. The notion of EA framework seemingly was originally introduced by the PRISM framework5, 6 and then widely popularized by the Zachman Framework7. In these early days an EA framework was defined as ‘a rational structure for classifying and organizing the descriptive representations of an Enterprise’8(p2). Even TOGAF officially defines an architecture framework as ‘a conceptual structure used to develop, implement, and sustain an architecture’2(p21).
However, TOGAF-certified EA practitioners report that their trainers now interpret the word ‘Framework’ in its title as ‘a set of reusable components’, in a import similar to which it is used in Ruby on Rails, Spring, CakePHP and other application frameworks, but which is essentially unrelated to its original meaning. Therefore, not only TOGAF was repositioned from a methodology to a toolkit, but even the word ‘Framework’ in its title was moreover re-imbued with a original import to denote ‘a set of reusable components’ instead of ‘a structure for describing enterprises’.Is TOGAF really based on best practice?
EA practitioners often believe that TOGAF is based on an industry best drill in EA developed by some other successful companies. It is not surprising taking into account the claims of The Open Group that ‘TOGAF has been developed through the collaborative efforts of over 300 Architecture Forum member companies from some of the world's leading companies and organisations’2(p7) and ‘provides a best drill framework for adding value’2 (P7).
However, if nobody follows ADM steps or develops the heaps of recommended EA documents, then whose best drill is it? I like never seen any architects or organisations who might like said that the ADM, ACF or Enterprise Continuum delineate their actual best practice. Most EA practitioners I like spoken to coincide that these recommendations can hardly be based on existent best practice, while others opine that their organisations are merely ‘not ripen enough yet’ for this best practice.
But here I want to notice that TOGAF appeared in 1995 and its core elements, for instance the ADM, remain virtually unchanged since then. How can it be that someone’s best drill developed more than 20 years ago quiet cannot be implemented anywhere because organizations are “not ripen enough yet”? Moreover, TOGAF is based on the Technical Architecture Framework for Information Management (TAFIM)9, but TAFIM was reportedly retired as unsuccessful because EA projects required huge investments of time and money, resulting architectures were often obsolete before the completion and commerce stakeholders were usually unable to understand them10, 11. If TOGAF is based on TAFIM and TAFIM proved unsuccessful, then how can TOGAF be based on best practice?
In the light of these observations it becomes pellucid that TOGAF reflect nobody’s actual best practice, while the existent root of its core recommendations remains largely obscure. At the identical time, the promises of The Open Group that TOGAF ‘provides a best drill framework’2(P7) can be considered only as typical senseless marketing statements aiming to promote the product sales unsurprisingly coming from the TOGAF’s vendor and the motivation behind them is perfectly clear. For instance, there is currently more than 52 thousand TOGAF-certified individuals worldwide12. It means that The Open Group has earned at least 23 million dollars on TOGAF certifications only13. If you add various trainings, courses, books, conferences, consulting and other lucrative TOGAF-related services provided by The Open Group, then this number will probably be much bigger. If you were The Open Group, would not you pretension that TOGAF represents best practice?
Therefore, the conclusion here is pretty unambiguous: core TOGAF recommendations enact not delineate (and never represented) anybody’s actual best practice, but rather came from some other unclear sources.Is actual best drill reflected in TOGAF?
Although it is pellucid that main TOGAF recommendations did not originate from existent best practice, another question from the opposite perspective is to what extent existent best drill is reflected in TOGAF. In other words, is actual best drill at least a subset of TOGAF?
My analysis of actual EA-related activities in the studied organisations suggests that existent best drill is hardly included in TOGAF. Probably the most prominent illustration demonstrating this conclusion is the EA artefact typically called the commerce Capability Map/Model (BCM) 14, 15, 16, which is widely used in the vast majority of the studied organisations, but is not even mentioned in TOGAF at all. In fact, the BCM plays a very significant role in EA practices of many organisations and has numerous profitable applications. For instance: (1) heatmapping - identifying strategically necessary capabilities and focusing IT investments there, (2) footprinting - mapping different IT solutions to capabilities in order to compare their commerce value, (3) determining repercussion - mapping an IT project to capabilities in order to understand how it will move the business, (4) identifying stakeholders - mapping an IT project to capabilities in order to identify its stakeholders, (5) predicting disruption - mapping an IT project to capabilities in order to understand which activities may be disrupted, (6) scoping - mapping an IT project to capabilities in order to its overall scope, (7) the BCM provides a common organisation-wide vocabulary and a reference model for various stakeholders to facilitate communication. Therefore, the utilize of BCM is evidently a fraction of actual best drill in EA. However, ~700 pages TOGAF document describes neither the BCM itself nor its numerous applications. Moreover, a brief analysis of the release notes of TOGAF Version 9.12(p35) suggests that TOGAF is not even moving towards existent industry best practice.
Consequently, existent best drill essentially is not included in TOGAF, i.e. TOGAF hardly overlaps with actual best drill in EA.Is TOGAF flexible?
TOGAF community members typically argue that TOGAF should be adapted before utilize and often commend TOGAF for its flexibility since it can be tailored to meet numerous situations and organisations. But where are the limits of this flexibility? In other words, to what extent can TOGAF be adapted and yet remain TOGAF?
Interestingly, TOGAF used to give an retort to this question. Section 2.11 of TOGAF Version 9 (‘TOGAF Document Categorisation Model’) 17(p18) classified the content of TOGAF into core, mandated, recommended and supporting sections. Core sections are ‘the fundamental concepts that figure the essence of TOGAF’17(P18), while mandated sections are ‘the normative parts of the TOGAF specification’ that ‘are central to its usage and without them the framework would not be recognisably TOGAF’17(P18).
All the key elements of TOGAF, including ADM phases, Architecture Deliverables and Enterprise Continuum, are classified as either core or mandated import that the officially-defined utilize of TOGAF implies using ADM phases and architecture deliverables and enterprise continuum. Since I like never seen or heard of any organisations using any of these elements in any existent sense, it can be safely stated that probably nobody on this planet uses TOGAF at all. Unsurprisingly, the release notes of TOGAF Version 9.1 inform readers that ‘the Document Categorisation Model has been removed’2(p36) and, therefore, now any EA-related activities can be interpreted as ‘using adapted TOGAF’ and described as ‘TOGAF-based’ regardless of their relationship to the actual TOGAF recommendations. Whatever you do, you utilize TOGAF.
However, what is much more necessary is that nobody I am sensible of is able to articulate clearly how exactly TOGAF should be adapted. TOGAF’s ~700 pages documentation mentions the need for adaptation, but does not retort the question ‘How exactly?’ either. I argue that the recommendation to reconcile TOGAF without specifying how exactly is an evident rational trick, ‘catch-22’.
Consider the following recommendation clearly illustrating the typical deceitful TOGAF-style pattern: ‘To ingest your soup you should utilize (1) a fork or (2) any other instrument’. This recommendation looks utterly nonsensical because (1) eating soup with a fork is obviously impractical but (2) the recommendation to utilize any other instrument does not convey any information at all. Consequently, the value of this recommendation is negative or nil. Looking through the TOGAF lenses this recommendation can be read as: ‘To drill EA you should result (1) ADM steps or (2) any other processes’. Here again (1) following ADM steps is obviously impractical but (2) the recommendation to result any other processes does not convey any information at all. In fact, TOGAF is abundant in similar recommendations where (1) doing what is recommended is obviously impractical but (2) the suggestion to reconcile this recommendation into something else is uninformative. Therefore, for most aspects of EA drill TOGAF is indeed flexible, i.e. does not prescribe anything in particular. As a result, TOGAF-certified EA practitioners are free to enact whatever they find reasonable and commend TOGAF for its flexibility since TOGAF generously allows them to reconcile (actually ignore) its own unreasonable advice. Unreasonableness of TOGAF’s recommendation is compensated by optionality of its execution.
This situation puts The Open Group in an extremely profitable position, while the position of EA practitioners seems desperate. The position of The Open Group is essentially a ‘lossless lottery’: any failures of TOGAF-based EA practices can be attributed to the indelicate adaptation of TOGAF’s best drill recommendations by unqualified architects, while any successes of TOGAF-unrelated EA practices can be ‘appropriated’ as TOGAF-based because TOGAF is very elastic and allows any behaviour. Since TOGAF allows any whimsical adaptations, replete successful EA practices can be considered TOGAF-based. This deceptive ‘flexibility trick’ puts TOGAF beyond any critique: TOGAF is always good, you just need to reconcile it properly (somehow). At the identical time, EA practitioners like no one to guilt but themselves: they are given ‘industry consensus EA best practice’ by The Open Group and now it is their whirl to reconcile and utilize it properly.
Taking into account the previous conclusions that the TOGAF’s recommendation is not best drill and that actual best drill is not included in TOGAF at all, very impressive flexibility is required in order to transform TOGAF into a working EA practice. Adapting TOGAF implies not only throwing away ADM, ACF and Enterprise Continuum, but moreover inventing something reasonable instead of them. From this perspective ‘using TOGAF’ can be best explained as ‘studying TOGAF and then doing something else instead’, and this is praised as TOGAF’s flexibility.
Therefore, the conclusion here is again unequivocal: the admired flexibility of TOGAF is nothing more than a simple trick helping (1) conceal impracticality of the actual TOGAF’s recommendations, (2) set aside the cross of responsibility for indelicate adaptation on EA practitioners, (3) avoid any potential criticism and (4) interpret successes and failures ‘properly’.What is TOGAF?
Since TOGAF consists of ~700 pages of nonconforming optional prescriptions of an unknown root hardly overlapping with actual best drill in EA, it can be best described as a toolkit of random EA-related recommendations. Unsurprisingly, the value of TOGAF is moreover haphazard. It can only be realised if some of its random recommendations accidentally whirl out to be useful, maybe yes, maybe no. For instance, EA practitioners, though unanimously opine that TOGAF cannot be used as a consistent EA methodology, quiet admit that TOGAF can like some value.
However, different EA practitioners find different random fragments of TOGAF valuable and these fragments are typically of secondary importance: some people find the notion of building blocks useful, some the notion of a viewpoint, technical reference model or some deliverables from some phases. Moreover, since TOGAF offers nothing in particular except the flexibility to ‘pick whatever you want, reconcile it as you wish and utilize it any pass you like’, it is fundamentally unable to provide any meaningful, systematic and consistent description of EA and EA practice. As a result, regardless of how well you know TOGAF, it is arguably impossible to establish a successful EA drill from scratch if you like never seen previously how successful EA practices ogle like and drudgery in other organisations. For instance, one interviewee compared the EA profession to a craftsmen’s guild where the only pass to acquire the necessary skills is to become an apprentice and learn from your master.
TOGAF can be moreover described as a distractor of attention because it draws the discourse in the EA community away from existent EA-related questions. In other words, people dispute TOGAF instead of discussing EA (with this article being the brightest illustration of this statement). Instead of EA education they score TOGAF certification. Instead of asking the prerogative questions, for instance ‘What works?’ and ‘What does not work?’, many EA practitioners watch to examine simulated questions, for instance ‘How should TOGAF be properly applied?’, ‘What are the advantages of TOGAF?’ or ‘What is better, TOGAF or Zachman?’. replete these TOGAF-inspired questions enact not get much sense and cannot advance their understanding of EA.
Unfortunately, the academic EA community is fascinated with TOGAF as well. Significant efforts are set aside into the scientific analysis of TOGAF18, 19, 20, 21 instead of empirical EA practice. Moreover, the situation in academe from this perspective is probably much worse than among EA practitioners, since many ‘paper’ researchers live in their speculative ivory towers and hardly understand the being of a gap between EA theory and practice. For instance, the first version of my paper intended to study the practical usage of EA artefacts22 was rejected by an anonymous reviewer with the following observation (among others): ‘Frameworks such as TOGAF provide very minute instructions for their users in terms of methodology and [artefacts]. I enact not discern the value of redefining these’.
More interestingly, the presence of TOGAF in the EA discourse generates the phenomenon of ‘doublethink’ - simultaneous acceptance of two mutually contradictory beliefs as correct. For instance, the question “Do they know something about EA practice?” typically gets answered with ‘Yes, TOGAF is a widely-accepted comprehensive industry benchmark defining EA practice’, but the question: ‘Can TOGAF be interpreted literally and followed step-by-step to drill EA?’ typically gets answered with ‘No, TOGAF is only a framework, it should be modified (somehow) for specific organisations’. In this situation they supposedly know much about EA drill because TOGAF exists, but at the identical time they moreover enact not know anything about EA drill because nobody can specify how exactly TOGAF should be used. Consequently, the being of TOGAF suggests that they know much and enact not know anything about EA drill at the identical time. This doublethink essentially leads to a lifeless discontinuance in the EA discipline because EA studies neither can be started from scratch (because TOGAF exists), nor can be based on TOGAF (because it is not pellucid how exactly it is used). Therefore, the being of TOGAF only wastes their time and inhibits rather than facilitates their progress in a existent understanding of EA.
What is more surprising, TOGAF can be considered essentially as a sanctimonious text due to the following properties: (1) its existent root and authorship are disputable, (2) it offers the wisdom of a mythical origin, (3) it cannot be understood literally, but needs to be properly interpreted, (4) it is promoted by enlightened gurus who know how to construe it, (5) when properly interpreted, it has answers to replete questions, (6) its original text does not change, while its interpretations evolve and (7) it is vague enough to be universal. reckon the following supernatural description of TOGAF at drudgery by a well-known TOGAF guru: ‘Organisations start with an open framework like the TOGAF framework, but as it gets customised and tailored, it adapts to an organisation’s culture to become their own ‘personalised’ enterprise architecture model. As enterprise architecture matures in an organisation, the TOGAF framework is quiet inside and powering their enterprise architecture but no longer very visible’23(P16). If it is not a sermon, then what is it?
This sanctimonious nature of TOGAF has very necessary implications for the discourse around it. Firstly, EA practitioners converted in TOGAF faith will be always convinced that they utilize TOGAF whatever they enact regardless of any rational arguments against it, even if they actually enact not result a single recommendation out of it. Secondly, whether to be or not to be TOGAF-based is only a matter of a personal conviction. For instance, I like met some faithful TOGAF believers who seemingly never read its original text, but only visited some courses where gurus explained to them how to interpret and utilize TOGAF ‘properly’. Therefore, many people believe they utilize TOGAF without being sensible of what exactly the original TOGAF text says.
As a result, many people are convinced that EA drill is TOGAF, which is not so1. This fact that many people learn TOGAF only from gurus, but never read its original text explains how TOGAF could be effortlessly reinterpreted and repositioned from a methodology to merely a toolkit even without modifying its original text. Thirdly, arguments around TOGAF might be moving and might even spark ‘religious wars’, but they are utterly useless and get no incompatibility at all. Fourthly, TOGAF lives in people’s hearts, not brains. Therefore, regardless of any future evidence-based scientific progress in their understanding of EA, TOGAF’s text will not change (but its interpretations quiet may change) and TOGAF’s congregation will not decline. As world religions can exist in parallel with physics, chemistry and biology, TOGAF can moreover exist in parallel with evidence-based sources on EA24, 25, which are typically discrepant with TOGAF. Regardless of any viable criticism, no matter how substantiated, TOGAF will stay with us and remain a inquisitive phenomenon of the EA world.Why TOGAF is so popular?
I argue that the popularity of TOGAF can be attributed to three main factors. The first factor is the aggressive promotion of TOGAF. Numerous gurus, trainers, instructors, experts, consultants, certification centres etc. get their fortunes ‘selling’ TOGAF. Unsurprisingly, replete these parties are interested in promoting TOGAF and avoiding any criticism towards it. They are replete working arduous to uphold the image of TOGAF as a globally recognised de facto industry benchmark in EA based on best drill of world-leading companies. What is moving here is that EA consultancies can sell their services under the TOGAF brand perfectly understanding its symbolic value. For instance, one of the few available evidence-based sources on EA24 co-authored by PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) experts clearly suggests that successful EA drill has not much to enact with TOGAF or any other EA frameworks, but yet PwC’s website promises to provide ‘advice consistent with industry leading frameworks such as TOGAF and Zachman’26.
The second factor is a lack of any staid alternatives to TOGAF. On the one hand, other promoted and well-known EA frameworks are even more useless for existent EA drill than TOGAF and enact not deserve any attention at all. On the other hand, other available reasonably remarkable sources on EA24, 25 are (1) not promoted and therefore are not well-known to ‘mass-readership’, (2) not distributed for free, (3) not frameworks, while EA is strongly associated with frameworks and (4) not comprehensive. Consequently, for many EA practitioners the only visible alternative to TOGAF is the Zachman Framework and TOGAF turns out to be the lesser of two evils. Moreover, the situation here looks hopeless since probably not a bit of the powerful players on the EA market are motivated to propound any alternatives to TOGAF: if people willingly pay for TOGAF, then why invent something else?
The third factor is the shameful (or even criminal) inertness of the EA research community, which I belong to. Unfortunately, EA researchers generally enact not provide any objective analysis of the situation in the EA discipline. As a result, trustworthy and evidence-based information on EA can hardly be found. In this atmosphere of ignorance numerous EA-related myths, legends and superstitions propagate very quickly. Due to a number of pretty intricate reasons academic EA researchers are typically obsessed with producing ‘scientific’ theories instead of answering existent practical questions.
Consequently, EA research rarely goes beyond paltry questions, like comparing EA frameworks or speculating on speculative benefits of EA. There are more than a thousand of academic publications on EA, but this impressive bank of ‘knowledge’ cannot retort even the simplest relevant questions, for instance which documents are typically used in EA drill and how. Therefore, the academic EA research community is essentially powerless and unable not only to propound some comprehensive alternatives to TOGAF, but even to check the propagation of risky TOGAF-related superstitions. The fact that TOGAF is now taught at a prestigious university27 clearly demonstrates the capitulation of an academic army to marketing aggressors.An moving contradiction
TOGAF is definitely an moving phenomenon of the EA world because: (1) it is based on a methodology previously rejected as ineffective (TAFIM9), (2) it claims to be based on best practice, but is unable to provide any examples of successful implementation, (3) it gained enormous popularity, but brings only a minor random value, (4) it is closely associated with the notion of EA, but is unable to define how EA works and even what EA is, (5) everybody knows that TOGAF should be adapted, but nobody can mumble how exactly, (6) it is successfully sold to very intellectual people with simplistic tricks, (7) people question its value, but are alive to to score certified (I’ve got my TOGAF certificate as well), (8) it claims to disseminate best practice, but actually inhibits its dissemination and (9) it acquired faithful believers.
Essentially, TOGAF is a toolkit of random EA-related recommendations which is unable to portray what EA drill is and even what EA is, but quiet can bring some fortuitous marginal value. To ‘use TOGAF’ actually means to ‘study TOGAF and then enact whatever you find reasonable’ and, therefore, means nothing at all. The being of TOGAF only distracts their attention and impedes their understanding of EA.
However, since TOGAF can be considered as a sanctimonious text and a liberty of religion is guaranteed by the constitution, everyone is free to believe in TOGAF, utilize TOGAF and find TOGAF valuable or even essential for EA practice. TOGAF faith cannot be prohibited, ridiculed or even condemned. Therefore, faithful TOGAF believers are free to stay content with metaphysical explanations of how TOGAF ‘adapts to an organisation’s culture to become their own “personalised” enterprise architecture model’ and then is ‘powering their enterprise architecture but no longer very visible’23, but replete others who are sentiment sceptical about vague TOGAF babble should forget TOGAF and study evidence-based sources on EA, of which two most necessary probably are ‘Enterprise Architecture as Strategy: Creating a Foundation for commerce Execution’25 and ‘Strategic Enterprise Architecture Management: Challenges, Best Practices, and Future Developments’24.
The views in this article are the views of the author and are his own personal views that should not be associated with any other individuals or organisations.
1 Kotusev, S. 2016. 'Enterprise Architecture Is Not TOGAF.' Retrieved 21 January, 2016, from http://www.bcs.org/content/conWebDoc/55547
2 TOGAF. 2011. 'TOGAF Version 9.1,' G116, The Open Group.
3 TOGAF. 2016. 'TOGAF Users by Market Sector.'
4 Anderson, P., Backhouse, G., Townsend, J., Hedges, M., and Hobson, P. 2009. 'Doing Enterprise Architecture: Enabling the Agile Institution,' 533, Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC), Bristol, United Kingdom, pp. 1-82.
5 PRISM. 1986. 'PRISM: Dispersion and Interconnection: Approaches to Distributed Systems Architecture,' CSC Index, Cambridge, MA.
6 Rivera, R. 2013. 'The PRISM Architecture Framework - Was It the Very First Enterprise Architecture Framework?,' Journal of Enterprise Architecture (9:4), pp. 14-18.
7 Zachman, J.A. 1987. 'A Framework for Information Systems Architecture,' IBM Systems Journal (26:3), pp. 276-292.
8 Zachman, J.A. 1996. 'Concepts of the Framework for Enterprise Architecture: Background, Description and Utility,' Zachman International, Monument, CO.
9 TAFIM. 1996. 'Department of Defense Technical Architecture Framework for Information Management, Volume 4: DoD Standards-Based Architecture Planning guide (Version 3.0),' Defense Information Systems Agency, Arlington County, VA.
10 Goikoetxea, A. 2007. Enterprise Architectures and Digital Administration: Planning, Design, and Assessment. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing.
11 Perks, C., and Beveridge, T. 2003. guide to Enterprise IT Architecture. original York, NY: Springer.
12 TOGAF. 2016. 'Directory of Certified People.' Retrieved 13 January, 2016, from https://togaf9-cert.opengroup.org/certified-individuals
13 TOGAF. 2016. 'TOGAF Examination Fees.' Retrieved 16 February, 2016, from https://togaf9-cert.opengroup.org/examination-fees
14 Scott, J. 2009. 'Business Capability Maps: The Missing Link Between commerce Strategy and IT Action,' Architecture and Governance Magazine (5:9), pp. 1-4.
15 Swindell, A. 2014. 'Business Capability Models: Why You Might be Missing Out on Better commerce Outcomes,' Architecture and Governance Magazine (10:2), pp. 3-7.
16 Keller, W. 2015. 'Using Capability Models for Strategic Alignment,' in commerce Architecture Management: Architecting the commerce for Consistency and Alignment, D. Simon and C. Schmidt (eds.). Berlin: Springer, pp. 107-122.
17 TOGAF. 2009. 'TOGAF Version 9,' G091, The Open Group.
18 Dietz, J.L., and Hoogervorst, J.A. 2011. 'A censorious Investigation of TOGAF - Based on the Enterprise Engineering Theory and Practice,' in Advances in Enterprise Engineering V, A. Albani, J.L. Dietz and J. Verelst (eds.). Berlin: Springer, pp. 76-90.
19 Zadeh, M.E., Millar, G., and Lewis, E. 2012. 'Mapping the Enterprise Architecture Principles in TOGAF to the Cybernetic Concepts - An Exploratory Study,' in Proceedings of the 45th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, R.H. Sprague (ed.), Maui, HI: IEEE, pp. 4270-4276.
20 Mueller, T., Schuldt, D., Sewald, B., Morisse, M., and Petrikina, J. 2013. 'Towards Inter-Organizational Enterprise Architecture Management - Applicability of TOGAF 9.1 for Network Organizations,' in Proceedings of the 19th Americas Conference on Information Systems, J.P. Shim, Y. Hwang and S. Petter (eds.), Chicago, IL: Association for Information Systems, pp. 1-13.
21 Alm, R., and Wißotzki, M. 2013. 'TOGAF Adaption for small and Medium Enterprises,' in Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on commerce Information Systems Workshops, W. Abramowicz (ed.), Poznan, Poland: Springer, pp. 112-123.
22 Kotusev, S., Singh, M., and Storey, I. 2015. 'Investigating the Usage of Enterprise Architecture Artifacts,' in Proceedings of the 23rd European Conference on Information Systems, J. Becker, J. vom Brocke and M. de Marco (eds.), Munster, Germany: Association for Information Systems, pp. 1-12.
23 Viswanathan, V. 2015. 'Four Questions: Vish Viswanathan,' Journal of Enterprise Architecture (11:2), pp. 15-17.
24 Ahlemann, F., Stettiner, E., Messerschmidt, M., and Legner, C. (eds.). 2012. Strategic Enterprise Architecture Management: Challenges, Best Practices, and Future Developments. Berlin: Springer.
25 Ross, J.W., Weill, P., and Robertson, D.C. 2006. Enterprise Architecture as Strategy: Creating a Foundation for commerce Execution. Boston, MA: Harvard commerce School Press.
26 PwC. 2016. 'Enterprise Architecture.' Retrieved 18 February, 2016, from http://www.pwc.com/ca/en/services/consulting/technology/advisory/enterprise-architecture-governance.html
27 NUS. 2016. 'NICF - Certified Enterprise Architecture Practitioner Course.' Retrieved 13 January, 2016, from https://www.iss.nus.edu.sg/ProfessionalCourses/SearchCourse/CourseDetail/tabid/267/cid/1/cname/nicf-certified-enterprise-architecture-practitioner-course/Default.aspx
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Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
McAfee [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Medical [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
Microsoft [375 Certification Exam(s) ]
Mile2 [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCLEX [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
NetworkAppliance [39 Certification Exam(s) ]
NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Oracle [282 Certification Exam(s) ]
P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Pegasystems [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [135 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
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